last update: 10 June 2024


Raho N., G. Pizarro, L. Escalera, B. Reguera & I. Marín (2008) Morphology, toxin composition and molecular analysis of Dinophysis ovum Schütt, a dinoflagellate of the "Dinophysis acuminata complex". - Harmful Algae 7(6): 839-848.
Raho N., F. Rodríguez, B. Reguera & I. Marín (2013) Are the mitochondrial cox1 and cob genes suitable markers for species of Dinophysis Ehrenberg? - Harmful Algae 28: 64-70. 

Raho N.,S. Fraga, J.P. Abad & I. Marín (2018) Biecheleria tirezensis sp. nov. (Dinophyceae, Suessiales), a new halotolerant dinoflagellate species isolated from the athalassohaline Tirez natural pond in Spain. - European Journal of Phycology 53(1): 99-113.

Raine R.
, S. O’Boyle, T. O’Higgins, M. White, J. Patching, B. Cahill & T. McMahon (2001) A sattelite and field portrait of a Karenia mikimotoi bloom off the south coast of Ireland, August 1998. – Hydrobiologia 465: 187-193.

Ramos-Santiago A.E., C.J. Band-Schmidt, L.-V. Ignacio, M. Munoz-Ochoa, Y.B. Okolodkov & I.S. Santiago-Morales (2022) Morphological and molecular analyses of Coolia malayensis (Dinophyceae) and effects of extracts of the macroalga Dictyota dichotoma (Phaeophyceae) on its growth. - CICIMAR OCEÁNIDES 37(2): 1-20.

Rampi L. (1939) Ricerche sul fitoplancton del mare Ligure. 1. – I Ceratium delle acque di Sanremo. Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, n.s. 46(2): 299-312.
Rampi L. (1940) Ricerche sul fitoplancton del mare Ligure. II. Le Tecatali e le Dinofisiali delle Acque di Sanremo. - Boletino d’Pesca , Piscicultura e Idrobiologia 16(2): 243-274.
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Rampi L. (1941b) I genero Histioneis Stein e Parahistioneis Kof. A. Skogsberg nel Bacino Mediterraneo. – Rivista di Scienza Nat. Natura, Milano 32: 118-122.
Rampi L. (1942) Ricerche sul fitoplancton del mare Ligure. 4. – I Ceratium delle acque di Sanremo. Parte II. Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, n.s., 49(2): 221-236.
Rampi L. (1943) Su qualque altra peridinea nuova o rara delle aque di Sanremo. - Atti Soc. Ital. Sci.Nat. Mus. Civ., Milano 82: 151-157.
Rampi L. (1948) Sur quelques Péridiniens rares ou interessants du Pacifique subtropical (Récorltes Alain Gerbault). – Bulletin de l’Institut Oceanographique 937: 1-7.
Rampi L. (1950) Péridiniens rares ou nouveaux pour le Pacifique Sud-Èquatorial. - Bulletin de l’Institut Oceanographique 974: 1-11.
Rampi L. (1952a) Ricerche sul Microplancton di superficie del Pacifico tropicale. – Bulletin de l’Institut Oceanographique 1014: 1-16.
Rampi L. (1952b) Su alcune Peridinee nuove od interessanti racolte nelle acque di San Remo. -  Atti della Accademia Ligure di Scienze e Lettere, Annata 1951, Genova 8: 104-114, pls. 1-2.
Rampi L. (1952c) Osservazioni su qualche Peridinea del Mare Ligure. - Atti della Academia Ligure di Scienze e lettere, Annata 1951: 115-122.
Rampi L. (1969) Su alcuni elementti fitoplanctonici (Peridiee, Silicococcales,ed Heterococcales) rari o nuovi raccolti nelle acque del Mare Ligure. – Natura- Soc.It.Sc.Nat., Museo Civ.St. Nat. E Aquario Civ., Milano 60(1): 49-56.
Rampi L. & M. Bernhard (1980) Chiave per la determinazione delle peridinee pelagiche mediterranee. - Comitato Nazionale Energia Nucleare RT/BIO (80)8: 1-193.


Ramsby B.D., M.S. Hill, D.J. Thornhill, S.F. Steenhuízen, M. Achlatis, A.M. Lewis & T.C. LaJeunesse (2017) Sibling species of mutualistic Symbiodinium clade G from bioeroding sponges in the western Pacific and western Atlantic Oceans. - Journal of Phycology 53(5): 951-960.

Ramsfjell E. (1959) Two new phytoplankton species from the Norwegian Sea, the diatom Coscinosira poroseriata, and the dinoflagellate Goniaulax parva. – Nytt Magasin for Botanikk 7: 175-177.
Ramsfjell E. (1960) Phytoplankton distribution in the Norwegian Sea in June, 1952 and 1953. - Fiskeridirektoratets Skrifter 12(10): 1-112.

Rausch de Traubenberg C., M.-L. Géraud, M.-O. Soyer-Gobillard & D. Emdadi (1995) The toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima and its associated bacteria I. An ultrastructural study. - European Journal of Protistology 31(3): 318-326.
Rausch de Traubenberg C., M.-O. Soyer-Gobillard, M.-L. Géraud & M. Algbert (1995) The toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima and its associated bacteria II. Immunolocalization of okadaic acid in axenic and non-axenic cultures. - European Journal of Protistology 31(4): 383-388.

Raven J.A. (1997) Phagotrophy in phototrophs. – Limnology and Oceanography 42: 198-205.

Raven J.A., D.J. Suggett & M. Giordano (2020) Inorganic carbon concentrating mechanisms in free-living and symbiotic dinoflagellates and chromerids. - Journal of Phycology 56(6): 1377-1397.

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Reguera B., I. Bravo & S. Fraga (1990) Distribution of Dinophysis acuta at the time of a DSP outbreak in the rías of Pontevedra and Vigo (Spain). – International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, C.M. 1990/L: 14, 8 pp.
Reguera B., I. Bravo & S. Fraga (1995) Autecology and some life history stages of Dinophysis acuta Ehrenberg. - Journal of Plankton Research 17: 999-1015.
Reguera B., I. Bravo, H. McCall & I. Reyero (1996) Phased cell division and other biological observations in field populations of Dinophysis ssp. During cell cycle studies. - In: Harmful and Toxic Algal Blooms. (T. Yasumoto, Y. Oshima & Y. Fukuyo Eds) – Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris, pp. 257-260.
Reguera B., E. Garcés, Y. Pazos, I. Bravo, I. Ramilo & S. González-Gil (2003) Cell cycle patterns and estimates of in situ potential division rates of dinoflagellates of the genus Dinophysis by a postmitotic index. - Marine Ecology Progress Series 249: 117-131.
Reguera B. & S. Gonzáles-Gil (2001) Small cell and intermediate cell formation in species of Dinophysis (Dinophyceae, Dinophysiales). - Journal of Phycology 37(2): 318-333.
Reguera B. & Y. Oshima (1990) Response of Gymnodinium catenatum to increasing levels of nitrate: growth pattern and toxicity. - In: Toxic Marine Phytoplankton (E. Granéli, B. Sundström, L. Edler & D.M. Anderson Eds), Elsevier, New York, Amsterdam, London, pp. 316-319.
Reguera B., M. García-Portela, E. Velasco-Senovilla, P. Rial, L. Escalera, P.A. Díaz & F. Rodríguez (2024) Dinophysis, a highly specialized mixoplanktonic protist. - Frontiers in Protistology 1: 1328026.


Reich H.G., W.C. Tu, I.B. Rodriguez, Y. Chou, E.F. Keister, D.W. Kemp, T.C. LaJeunesse & T.Y. Ho (2021) Iron availability modulates the response of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates to heat stress. - Journal of Phycology 57(1): 3-13.

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Reichart G.-J. & H. Brinkhuis (2003) Late quarterary Protoperidinium cysts as indicators of paleoproductivity in the northern Arabian Sea. - Marine Micropaleontology 49: 303-315.

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Reid P.C. (1974) Gonyaulacacean dinoflagellate cysts from the British Isles. - Nova Hedwigia 25: 579-637.
Reid P.C. (1977) Peridiniaceaen and glenodiniaceaen dinoflagellate cysts from the British Isles. - Nova Hedwigia 29: 429-463.

Reimchen T.E. & J.A. Buckland-Nicks  (1990) A novel association between an endemic stickleback and a parasitic dinoflagellate: 1. Seasonal cycle and host response. - Canadian Journal of Zoology 68: 667-671.

Reimer J.D., K. Takishita, T. Maruyama & J. Tsukahara (2006) Latitudinal and intraclonal IST-rDNA sequence variation in the symbiotic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) in Zoanthus sansibaricus (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). – Phycological Research 54: 122-132.
Reimer J.D., M.M.R. Shah, F. Sinninger, K. Yanagi & S. Suda (2010) Preliminary analyses of cultured Symbiodinium isolated from sand in the oceanic Ogasawara Islands, Japan. - Marine Biodiversity 40: 237-247.

René A., C.T. Satta, E. Garcés, R. Massana, M. Zapata, S. Anglès & J. Camp (2011) Gymnodinium litoralis sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a newly identified bloom-forming dinoflagellate from the NW Mediterranean Sea. - Harmful Algae 12: 11-25.
René A., M. de Salas, J. Camp, V. Balagué & E. Garcés (2013) A new clade, based on partial LSU rDNA sequences, of unarmoured dinoflagellates. - Protist 164(5): 673-685.
René A., J. Camp & E. Garcés (2014) Polykrikos tanit sp. nov., a new mixotrophic unarmoured pseudocolonial dinoflagellate from the NW Mediterranean Sea. - Protist 165(1) 81-92.
René A., J. Camp & E. Garcés (2015) Diversity and phylogeny of Gymnodiniales (Dinophyceae) from the NW Mediterranean Sea revealed by a morphological and molecular approach. - Protist 166(2): 234-263. 

René A., E. Alacid, R.I. Figueroa, F. Rodríguez & E. Garcés (2017) Life-cycle, ultrastructure, and phylogeny of Parvilucifera corolla sp. nov. (Alveolata, Perkinsozoa), a parasitoid of dinoflagellates. - European Journal of Protistology 58: 9-25.

René A., E. Alacid, I. Ferrera & E. Garcés (2017) Evolutionary trends of Perkinsozoa (Alveolata) characters based on observations of two new genera of parasitoids of dinoflagellates, Dinovorax gen. nov. and Snorkelia gen. nov. - Frontiers in Microbiology 8: 1594.

René A. & M. Hoppenrath (2019) Psammodinium inclinatum gen. nov et comb. nov. (= Thecadinium inclinatum Balech) is the closest relative to the toxic dinoflagellate genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. - Harmful Algae 84: 161-171.
René A., C.T. Satta, P. López-García & M. Hoppenrath (2020) Re-evaluation of Amphidiniopsis (Dinophyceae) morphogroups based on phylogenetic relationships, and description of three new sand-dwelling species from the NW Mediterranean. - Journal of Phycology 56(1): 68-84.

René A., A. Auladell, G. Reboul, D. Moreira & P. López-García (2020) Performance of the melting seawater-ice elution method on the metabarcoding characterization of benthic protist communities. - Environmental Microbiology Reports 12(3): 314-323.

René A., M. Hoppenrath, G. Reboul, D. Moreira & P. López-García (2021) Composition and temporal dynamics of sand-dwelling dinoflagellate communities from three Mediterranean beaches. - Aquatic Microbial Ecology 86: 85-98.
René A., N. Timoneda, S. Khodami, P. López-García, P. Martinez Arbizu & M. Hoppenrath (2023) Morpho-molecular characterization of sand-dwelling dinoflagellate communities from the German Wadden Sea and insights into their spatiotemporal distribution. - European Journal of Phycology 59: 196-217.

Rengefors K. (1998) Seasonal succession of dinoflagellates coupled to the benthic cyst dynamicss in Lake Erken, Sweden. – Arch. Hydrobiol. Spec. Issues Advanc. Limnol. 51: 123-141.
Rengefors K. & C. Legrand (2001) Toxicity in Peridinium aciculiferum - an adaptive strategy to outcompete other winter phytoplankton? - Journal of Phycology 37(3): 42.

Rengefors K., K.C. Ruttenberg, L.C. Haupert, C. Taylor, B.L. Howes & D.M. Anderson (2003) Experimental investigation of taxon-specific response of alkaline phosphatase activity in natural freshwater phytoplankton. – Limnology and Oceanography 48(3): 1167-1175.

Rengefors K. & C. Legrand (2007) Broad allelopathic activity in Peridinium aciculiferum (Dinophyceae). – European Journal of Phycology 42(4): 341-349.

Ressmeyer A.-R., J.C. Mayo, V. Zelosko, R.M. Sáinz, D.-X. Tan, B. Poeggeler, I. Antolín, B.K. Zsizsik, R.J. Reiter & R. Hardeland (2003) Antioxidant properties of the melatonin metabolite N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK): scavenging of free radicals and prevention of protein destruction. - Redox Rep. 8: 205-213.

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Rhodes L., K. Smith, A. Selwood, P. McNabb, R. Munday, S. Suda, S. Molenaar & G. Hallegraeff (2011) Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum identified as the causative organism of pinnatoxins in Australia, New Zealand and Japan. - Phycologia 50(6): 624-628.
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Ruiz-de la Torre M.C., M.L. Núnez Resendiz, K.M. Dreckmann, A. Sentíes, M.E. Zamudio-Resendiz & A. Escarcega-Bata (2022) Biecheleriopsis adriatica (Dinophyceae: Suessiaceae): the first record from the Eastern Pacific Ocean. - Botanica Marina 65(5): 371-378.


Rusterholz P.M., P.J. Hansen & N. Daugbjerg (2017) Evolutionary transition towards permanent chloroplasts? - Division of kleptochloroplasts in starved cells of two species of Dinophysis (Dinophyceae). - PLoS ONE 12(5): e0177512.

Ruvindy R., A. Barua, C.J.S. Bolch, C. Sarowar, H. Savela & S.A. Murray (2023) Genomic copy number variability at the genus, species and population levels impacts in situ ecological analyses of dinoflagellates and harmful algal blooms. - ISME Communications: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43705-023-00274-0

Ryan D.E. & L. Campbell (2016) Identification and phylogeny of putative PEPC genes in three toxin-producing Karenia (Dinophyta) species. - Journal of Phycology 52: 618-625.