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last update: 13 July 2018

 

Paerl H.W., J.J. Joyner, A.R. Joyner, K. Arthur, V. Paul, J.M. O´Neil & C.A. Heil (2008) Co-occurrence of dinoflagellate and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms in southwest Florida coastal waters: dual nutrient (N and P) input controls. - Marine Ecology Progress Series 371: 143-153.

Paez-Reyes M. & M.J. Head (2013) The cenozoic gonyaulacacean dinoflagellate genera Operculodinium Wall, 1967 and Protoceratium Bergh, 1881 and their phylogenetic relationships. - Journal of Paleontology 87(5): 786-803.

Pandeirada M.S., S.C. Craveiro & A.J. Calado (2013) Freshwater dinoflagellates in Portugal (W Iberia): a critical checklist and new observations. - Nova Hedwigia 97(3-4): 321-348. 
Pandeirada M.S., S.C. Craveiro, N. Daugbjerg, O. Moestrup & A.J. Calado (2014) Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates VI: description of Tovellia aveirensis sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a new species of Tovelliaceae with spiny cysts. - European Journal of Phycology 49(2): 230-243.
Pandeirada M.S., S.C. Craveiro, N. Daugbjerg, O. Moestrup & A.J. Calado (2017) Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates VIII: life cycle, resting cyst morphology and phylogeny of Tovellia rinoi sp. nov. (Dinophyceae). - Phycologia 56(5): 533-548. 

Pape C. & R. Hardeland (1999) Detoxification of hydrogen peroxide in Gonyaulax  polyedra: Remarkable capacity for elimination of exogenous H2O2 and differences between cells kept in constant light and constant darkness. - In: Studies on Antioxidants and their Metabolites (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 28-34.
Pape C. & R. Hardeland (1999) Diurnal rhythm of hydrogen peroxide release by  Gonyaulax polyedra. - In: Studies on Antioxidants and their Metabolites (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 14-22.
Pape C. & R. Hardeland (1999) Requirement of medium supply for the diurnal rhythm of H2O2 release in Gonyaulax polyedra. - In: Studies on Antioxidants and their Metabolites (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 23-27.

 

Pappas M.K., S. He, R.S. Hardenstine, H. Kanee & M.L. Berumen (2017) Genetic diversity of giant clams (Tridacna spp) and their associated Symbiodinium in the central Red Sea. - Marine Biodiversity 47: 1209-1222.

Park H.-D. & H. Hayashi (1992) Life cycle of Peridinium bipes f. occultatum (Dinophyceae) isolated from Lake Kizaki. - J. Fac. Sci., Shinshu Univ. 27: 87-104.
Park H.-D. & H. Hayashi (1993) Role of encystment and excystment of Peridinium bipes f. occulatum (Dinophyceae) in freshwater red tides in Lake Kizaki, Japan. – Journal of Phycology 29(4): 435-441.
Park M. & D. Ballantine (1957) A new marine Dinoflagellate: Exuviaella mariae-lebouriae n. sp. - J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 36(3): 643-650.    (fide Sournia 1973)
Park M., W. Yih & D.W. Coats (2004) Parasites and phytoplankton, with special emphasis on dinoflagellate infections. - The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 51: 145-155.
Park M.G. & M. Kim (2010) Prey specificity and feeding of the thecate mixotrophic dinoflagellate Fragilidium duplocampanaeforme. - Journal of Phycology 46(3): 424-432.  
Park M.G., M. Kim & M. Kang (2013) A dinoflagellate Amylax triacantha with plastids of the crytophyte origin: phylogeny, feeding mechanism, and growth and grazing responses. - Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 60: 363-376. 

Park M.G., M. Kim, S. Kim & W. Yih (2010) Does Dinophysis caudata (Dinophyceae) have permanent plastids? - Journal of Phycology 46(2): 236-242.
Park M.G., J.S. Park, M. Kim & W. Yih (2008) Plastid dynamics during survival of Dinophysis caudata without its ciliate prey. - Journal of Phycology 44(5): 1154-1163.
Park T.-G., C.-H. Kim & Y. Oshima (2004) Paralytic shellfish toxin profiles of different geographic populations of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) in Korean coastal waters. – Phycological Research 52: 300-305.
Park T.-G., G.-H. Park, Y.-T. Park, Y.-S. Kang, H.-M. Bae, C.-H. Kim, H.-J. Jeong & Y. Lee (2009) 7. Identification of the dinoflagellate community during Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Dinophyceae) blooms using amplified rDNA melting curve analysis and real-time PCR probes. - Harmful Algae 8(3): 430-440.

Parkinson J.E., M.A. Coffroth & T.C. LaJeunesse (2015) New species of clade B Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) from the greater Caribbean belong to different functional guilds: S. aenigmaticum sp. nov., S. antillogorgium sp. nov., S. endomadracis sp. nov., and S. pseudominutum sp. nov. - Journal of Phycology 51(5): 850-858.

Parra-Toriz D., K. Esqueda-Lara & D.U. Hernández-Becerril (2012) Morphological observations of the marine planktonic dinoflagellate Phalacroma turbineum Kofoid et Michener (Dinophyta), with discussion on its taxonomy and distribution. - European Journal of Protistology 48(4): 274-282.
Parra-Toriz D., D.U. Hernández-Becerril & K. Esqueda-Lara (2014) Phalacroma gibbosum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) from the southern Gulf of Mexico. - Nova Hedwigia 99(1-2): 83-96.

Parrish C.C., G. Bodennec & P. Gentin (1998) Haemolytic glycoglyerolipids from Gymnodinium species. – Phytochemistry 47(5): 783-787.
Parrish C.C., G. Bodennec, J.L. Sebedio & P. Gentin (1993) Intra-and extracellular lipids in cultures of the toxic dinoflagellate, Gyrodinium aureolum. – Phytochemistry 32(2): 291-295.

Parrow M. & J.M. Burkholder (2002) Vegetative and sexual reproduction in Pfiesteria ssp. (Dinophyceae) cultured with algal prey, and inferences for their classification. – Harmful Algae 1(1): 5-33.
Parrow M. & J.M. Burkholder (2003a) Estuarine heterotrophic cryptoperidiniopsoids (Dinophyceae): life cycle and culture studies. - Journal of Phycology 39: 678-696.
Parrow M. & J.M. Burkholder (2003b) Reproduction and sexuality in Pfiesteria shumwayae (Dinophyceae). - Journal of Phycology 39: 697-711.
Parrow M. & J.M. Burkholder (2004) The sexual life cycles of  Pfiesteria piscicida and Cryptoperidiniopsids (Dinophyceae). - Journal of Phycology 40(4): 664-673.
Parrow M., J.M. Burkholder, N.J. Deamer & J.S. Ramsdell (2005) Contaminant-free cultivation of Pfiesteria shumwayae (Dinophyceae) on a fish cell line. – Aquatic Microbial Ecology 39: 97-105.
Parrow M., J.M. Burkholder, N.J. Deamer & C. Zhang (2002) Vegetative and sexual reproduction in Pfiesteria ssp. (Dinophyceae) cultured with algal prey, and inferences for their classification. - Harmful Algae 1(1): 5-33.
Parrow M.W., M. Elbrächter, M.K. Krause, J.M. Burkholder, N.J. Deamer, N. Htyte and E.H. Allen (2006) The taxonomy and growth of a Crypthecodinium species (Dinophyceae) isolated from a brackish water fish aquarium. – African Journal of Marine Science 28(2): 185-191.

Parsons M.L., K. Aligizaki, M.-Y. Dechraoui Bottein, S. Fraga, S.L. Morton, A. Penna & L. Rhodes (2012) Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis: reassessment of the state of knowledge of their taxonomy, geography, ecophysiology, and toxicology. - Harmful Algae 14: 107-129.

Partensky F. & A. Sournia (1988) Le dinoflagellé Gyrodinium cf. aureolum dans le plancton de l'Atlantique nord: identification, écology, toxicité. - Cryptogam. Algol. 7: 251-275.
Partensky F. & D. Vaulot (1989) Cell size differentiation in the bloom-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium cf. nagasakiense. – Journal of Phycology 25(4): 741-750.

Pascher A. (1911) Über die Beziehungen der Cryptomonaden zu den Algen. - Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 29: 193-203.
Pascher A. (1914) Über Flagellaten und Algen. - Ber. Deutsche Bot. Ges. 32: 136-160
Pascher A. (1916a) Über eine neue Amöbe - Dinamoeba (varians) - mit dinoflagellatenartigen Schwärmern. - Archiv für Protistenkunde 36: 118-136, pl. 10.
Pascher A. (1916b) Fusionsplasmodien bei Flagellaten und ihre Bedeutung für die Ableitung der Rhizopoden von den Flagellaten. - Archiv für Protistenkunde 37: 31-64 + pl. 3.
Pascher A. (1917) Von der merkwürdigen Bewegungsweise einiger Flagellaten. – Biologisches Zentralblatt 37: 421-429
Pascher A. (1927) Die braune Algenreihe aus der Verwandtschaft der Dinoflagellaten (Dinophyceen). - Archiv für Protistenkunde 58: 1-54.
Pascher A. (1944a) Über neue, protoccoide, festsitzende Algengattungen aus der Verwandtschaft der Dinoflagellaten. – Beihefte zum Botanischen Zentralblatt 62 A: 376-395, pl. 6.
Pascher A. (1944b) Über zwei farblose, protococcoide Algen aus der Reihe der Dinophycee und über Schädigung durch Epiphytismus. - Beihefte zum Botanischen Zentralblatt 62 A: 396-404, pl. 6.

Passov U. (1991) Vertical migration of Gonyaulax catenata and Mesodinium rubrum. - Marine Biology 110: 455-463.

Pasternak A.F.
, Y.G. Arashkevich & Y. S. Sorokin (1984) The role of the parasitic algal genus Blastodinium in the ecology of planktonic copepods. - Oceanology 24(4): 748-751.

Patterson D.J. & M. Zölffel (1991) Heterotrophic flagellates of uncertain taxonomic position. - Systematics Association Spec. Vol. 45: 427-475.

Patton S., P.T. Chandler, E.B. Kalan, A.R. Loeblich III, G. Fuller & A.A. Benson (1967): Food value of Red Tide (Gonyaulax polyedra). – Science 159(3802): 789-790.
Patton S., G. Fuller, A.R. Loeblich III & A.A. Benson (1966) Fatty acids of the “red tide” organism, Gonyaulax polyedra. – Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 116: 577-579.

Paulmier G. (1992) Catalogue illustre des microphytes planctoniques et benthiques des Cotes Normandes. - IFREMER, RIDRV-92.007-RH/Le Robert: 1-76 + pls. 60-75.
Paulmier G., B. Berland, C. Billard & E. Nézan (1995) Gyrodinium corsicum nov. sp. (Gymnodiniales, Dinophycées), organisme responsable d’une <<eau verte>> dans l’Etang marine de Diana (Corse), en avril 1994. - Cryptogamie, Algologie 16(2): 77-94.

Paulsen O. (1904) On some Peridineae and plankton-diatoms. - Meddelelser fra Kommissionen for Havundersøgelser Serie: Plankton 1(1): 1-57.
Paulsen O. (1905) On some Peridineae and plankton-diatoms. - Meddelelser fra Kommissionen for Havundersøgelser Serie: Plankton 1(3): 1-7.
Paulsen O. (1907) The Peridiniales of the Danish Waters. - Meddelelser fra Kommissionen for Havundersøgelser Serie: Plankton 1(5): 1-26.
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Paulsen O. (1949) Observations on Dinoflagellates. - Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. Biologiske Skrifter 6(4): 1-67.

Pavillard J. (1905) Recherches sur la flore pélagique (Phytoplankton) de l’Étang de Thau. – Travail de l’Institut de Botanique de l’Université de Montpellier et de la Station Zoologique de Cette, Série mixte, Mémoire 2: 5-116, pls. 1-3.
Pavillard J. (1913) Le genre Diplopsalis Bergh et les genres voisins. - Montpellier, France (author) 12 pp.
Pavillard J. (1915) Péridiniens nouveaux du Golf du Lion. - Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie Année 1915(78): 120-122.
Pavillard J. (1916) Recherches sur les Péridiniens du Golfe du Lion. – Traveaux Inst. Bot. Univ. Montpellier, Série Mixte Mémoire 4: 9-70, pls. 1-3.
Pavillard J. (1917) Protistes nouveaux ou peu connus du plancton méditerranéen. - Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances de l’ Academie des Sciences Paris 164: 925-928.
Pavillard J. (1917) Un flagellé pélagique aberrant, le Pelagorhynchus marinus. - C.r.Séanc. hebd. Acad. Sci. Paris 164: 238-241.
Pavillard J. (1922) Pronoctiluca et Noctiluca. - Bull. Soc. bot. Fr. 69: 365-370.
Pavillard J. (1928) Kofoidinium velleloides, n.g.n.sp.. – Annales de Protistologie 1 : 159-161.
Pavillard J. (1931) Phytoplankton (Diatomées, Péridiniens) provenant des campagnes scientifiques du Prince Albert Ier de Monaco. – Résultats des Campagnes Scientifiques accomplies sur son Yacht par Albert 1er Prince souverain de Monaco, publiés sous sa direction avec la concours de M. Jules Richard 82:1-203.

Pearce I. & G.M. Hallegraeff (2004) Genetic affinities, ecophysiology and toxicity of Prorocentrum playfairii and P. foveolata (Dinophyceae) from Tasmanian freshwaters. – Phycologia 43(3): 271-281.

Pearn J. (2001) Neurology of ciguatera. – J. Neurol. Neurosur. Ps. 70: 4-8.

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Penna A.
, E. Bertozzini, C. Battocchi, L. Galluzzi, M.G. Giacobbe, M. Vila, E. Garcés, A. Lugliè & M. Magnani (2007) Monitoring of HAB species in the Mediterranean Sea through molecular methods. - Journal of Plankton Research 29: 19-38.
Penna A., S. Fraga, M. Masó, M.G. Giacobbe, I. Bravo, E. Garcés, M. Vila, E. Bertozzini, F. Andreoni, A. Lugliè & C. Vernesi (2008) Phylogenetic relationships among the Mediterranean Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) species based on sequences of 5.8S gene and Internal Transcript Spacers of the rRNA operon. - European Journal of Phycology 43(2): 163-178.
Penna A., S. Fraga, C. Battocchi, S. Casabianca, M.G. Giacobbe, P. Riobó & C. Vernesi (2010) A phylogeographical study of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis Schmidt. - Journal of Biogeography 37: 830-841.
Penna A., G. Fusco, E. Bertozzini, M.G. Giacobbe, M. Vila, L. Galluzzi, E. Garcés, A. Lugliè, M. Masó & M. Magnani (2006) Monitoring of Alexandrium species in the Mediterranean Sea through a filter system - PCR assay detection method. - African Journal Marine Science. 28(2): 241-243.
Penna A., E. Gangemi, M. Vila, M.G. Giacobbe, E. Garcés, S. Florean & Andreoni F. (2001). A preliminary survey of Ostreopsidaceae (Dinophyta) in the Mediterranean: molecular and morphological analyses of different isolates. - Phycologia 40(4): 51.
Penna A., E. Garcés, M. Vila, M.G. Giacobbe, S. Fraga, A. Lugliè, I. Bravo, E. Bertozzini & C. Vernesi (2005) Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae), a toxic ribotype expanding in the NW Mediterranean Sea. - Marine Biology 148: 13–23.
Penna A., M. Vila, S. Fraga, M.G. Giacobbe, F. Andreoni, P. Riobó & C. Vernesi (2005) Characterization of Ostreopsis and Coolia (Dinophyceae) isolates in the Western Mediterranean Sae based on morphology, toxicology and internal transcribed spacer 5.8SrDNA sequences. – Journal of Phycology 41(1): 212-225.

Pennick N.C. & K. J. Clarke (1977) The occurence of scales in the peridinian dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra (Ehrenb.) Stein. - British phycological Journal 12: 63-66.

Peperzak L., G.J. Snoeijer, R. Dijkema, W.W.C. Gieskes, J. Joordens, J.C.H. Peeters, C. Schol, E.G. Vrieling & W. Zevenboom (1996) Development of a Dinophysis acuminata bloom in the River Rhine plume (North Sea). - In: Harmful and Toxic Algal Blooms. (T. Yasumoto, Y. Oshima & Y. Fukuyo Eds), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris, pp. 273-276.

Percopo I., R. Siano, R. Rossi, V. Soprano, D. Sarno & A. Zingone (2013) A new potentially toxic Azadinium species (Dinophyceae) from the Mediterranean Sea, A. dexteroporum sp. nov. - Journal of Phycology 49(5): 950-966.

Perez C.C., S. Roy, M. Levasseur & D.M. Anderson (1998) Control of germination of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) cysts from the lower St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada). – Journal of Phycology 34(2): 242-249.

Pérez Blanco E. & J. Lewis (2014) A comparative study of Alexandrium tamarense cyst distribution in Belfast Lough. - European Journal of Phycology 49(2): 255-263.

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Persson A., A. Godhe & B. Karlson (2000) Dinoflagellate cysts in recent sediments from the West Coast of Sweden. - Botanica Marina 43: 69-79.
Persson A., B.C. Smith, G.H. Wikfors & J.H. Alix (2008) Dinoflagellate gamete formation and environmental cues: Observations, theory, and synthesis. - Harmful Algae 7(6): 798-801.
Persson A., B.C. Smith, T. Cyronak, E. Cooper & G.R. DiTullio (2016) Differences in pigmentation between life cycle stages in Scrippsiella lachrymosa (Dinophyceae). - Journal of Phycology 52(1): 64-74. 

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Peters N. (1926) Noctiluca mit grünen Symbionten. - Zoologischer Anzeiger 67(7/8): 193-194.
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Phan-Tan L., L. Nguyen-Ngoc, H. Doan-Nhu, R. Raine & J. Larsen (2017) Species diversity of Protoperidinium sect. Oceanica (Dinophyceae, Peridiniales) in Vietnamese waters, with description of the new species P. larsenii sp. nov. - Nordic Journal of Botany 35: 129-146.

Phan-Tan L., L. Nguyen-Ngoc, W.O. Smith Jr. & H. Doan-Nhu (2018) A new dinoflagellate species, Protoperidinium smithii H. Doan-Nhu, L. Phan-Tan et L. Nguyen-Ngoc sp. nov., and an emended description of Protoperidinium defectum (Balech 1965) Balech 1974 from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. - Polar Biology 41: 983-992.


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Pierangelini M., J.A. Raven & M. Giordano (2017) The relative availability of inorganic carbon and inorganic nitrogen influences the response of the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum to elevated CO2. - Journal of Phycology 53(2): 298-307.

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