last update: 14 December 2023


Paerl H.W., J.J. Joyner, A.R. Joyner, K. Arthur, V. Paul, J.M. O´Neil & C.A. Heil (2008) Co-occurrence of dinoflagellate and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms in southwest Florida coastal waters: dual nutrient (N and P) input controls. - Marine Ecology Progress Series 371: 143-153.

Paez-Reyes M. & M.J. Head (2013) The cenozoic gonyaulacacean dinoflagellate genera Operculodinium Wall, 1967 and Protoceratium Bergh, 1881 and their phylogenetic relationships. - Journal of Paleontology 87(5): 786-803.

Pandeirada M.S., S.C. Craveiro & A.J. Calado (2013) Freshwater dinoflagellates in Portugal (W Iberia): a critical checklist and new observations. - Nova Hedwigia 97(3-4): 321-348. 
Pandeirada M.S., S.C. Craveiro, N. Daugbjerg, O. Moestrup & A.J. Calado (2014) Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates VI: description of Tovellia aveirensis sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a new species of Tovelliaceae with spiny cysts. - European Journal of Phycology 49(2): 230-243.
Pandeirada M.S., S.C. Craveiro, N. Daugbjerg, O. Moestrup & A.J. Calado (2017) Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates VIII: life cycle, resting cyst morphology and phylogeny of Tovellia rinoi sp. nov. (Dinophyceae). - Phycologia 56(5): 533-548.

Pandeirada M.S., S.C. Craveiro, N. Daugbjerg, O. Moestrup & A.J. Calado (2021) Fine-structural characterization and phylogeny of Sphaerodinium (Suessiales, Dinophyceae), with the description of an unusual type of freshwater dinoflagellate cyst. - European Journal of Protistology 78: 125770.

Pandeirada M.S., S.C. Craveiro, N. Daugbjerg, O. Moestrup & A.J. Calado (2023) Cell fine structure and phylogeny of Parvodinium: towards an ultrastructural characterization of the Peridiniopsidaceae (Dinophyceae). - European Journal of Phycology 58(2): 169-189.

Pape C. & R. Hardeland (1999) Detoxification of hydrogen peroxide in Gonyaulax  polyedra: Remarkable capacity for elimination of exogenous H2O2 and differences between cells kept in constant light and constant darkness. - In: Studies on Antioxidants and their Metabolites (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 28-34.
Pape C. & R. Hardeland (1999) Diurnal rhythm of hydrogen peroxide release by  Gonyaulax polyedra. - In: Studies on Antioxidants and their Metabolites (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 14-22.
Pape C. & R. Hardeland (1999) Requirement of medium supply for the diurnal rhythm of H2O2 release in Gonyaulax polyedra. - In: Studies on Antioxidants and their Metabolites (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 23-27.


Pappas M.K., S. He, R.S. Hardenstine, H. Kanee & M.L. Berumen (2017) Genetic diversity of giant clams (Tridacna spp) and their associated Symbiodinium in the central Red Sea. - Marine Biodiversity 47: 1209-1222.

Park H.-D. & H. Hayashi (1992) Life cycle of Peridinium bipes f. occultatum (Dinophyceae) isolated from Lake Kizaki. - J. Fac. Sci., Shinshu Univ. 27: 87-104.
Park H.-D. & H. Hayashi (1993) Role of encystment and excystment of Peridinium bipes f. occulatum (Dinophyceae) in freshwater red tides in Lake Kizaki, Japan. – Journal of Phycology 29(4): 435-441.
Park M. & D. Ballantine (1957) A new marine Dinoflagellate: Exuviaella mariae-lebouriae n. sp. - J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 36(3): 643-650.    (fide Sournia 1973)
Park M., W. Yih & D.W. Coats (2004) Parasites and phytoplankton, with special emphasis on dinoflagellate infections. - The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 51: 145-155.
Park M.G. & M. Kim (2010) Prey specificity and feeding of the thecate mixotrophic dinoflagellate Fragilidium duplocampanaeforme. - Journal of Phycology 46(3): 424-432.  
Park M.G., M. Kim & M. Kang (2013) A dinoflagellate Amylax triacantha with plastids of the crytophyte origin: phylogeny, feeding mechanism, and growth and grazing responses. - Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 60: 363-376. 

Park M.G., M. Kim, S. Kim & W. Yih (2010) Does Dinophysis caudata (Dinophyceae) have permanent plastids? - Journal of Phycology 46(2): 236-242.
Park M.G., J.S. Park, M. Kim & W. Yih (2008) Plastid dynamics during survival of Dinophysis caudata without its ciliate prey. - Journal of Phycology 44(5): 1154-1163.
Park T.-G., C.-H. Kim & Y. Oshima (2004) Paralytic shellfish toxin profiles of different geographic populations of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) in Korean coastal waters. – Phycological Research 52: 300-305.
Park T.-G., G.-H. Park, Y.-T. Park, Y.-S. Kang, H.-M. Bae, C.-H. Kim, H.-J. Jeong & Y. Lee (2009) 7. Identification of the dinoflagellate community during Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Dinophyceae) blooms using amplified rDNA melting curve analysis and real-time PCR probes. - Harmful Algae 8(3): 430-440.

Parkinson J.E., M.A. Coffroth & T.C. LaJeunesse (2015) New species of clade B Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) from the greater Caribbean belong to different functional guilds: S. aenigmaticum sp. nov., S. antillogorgium sp. nov., S. endomadracis sp. nov., and S. pseudominutum sp. nov. - Journal of Phycology 51(5): 850-858.

Parra-Toriz D., K. Esqueda-Lara & D.U. Hernández-Becerril (2012) Morphological observations of the marine planktonic dinoflagellate Phalacroma turbineum Kofoid et Michener (Dinophyta), with discussion on its taxonomy and distribution. - European Journal of Protistology 48(4): 274-282.
Parra-Toriz D., D.U. Hernández-Becerril & K. Esqueda-Lara (2014) Phalacroma gibbosum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) from the southern Gulf of Mexico. - Nova Hedwigia 99(1-2): 83-96.

Parrish C.C., G. Bodennec & P. Gentin (1998) Haemolytic glycoglyerolipids from Gymnodinium species. – Phytochemistry 47(5): 783-787.
Parrish C.C., G. Bodennec, J.L. Sebedio & P. Gentin (1993) Intra-and extracellular lipids in cultures of the toxic dinoflagellate, Gyrodinium aureolum. – Phytochemistry 32(2): 291-295.

Parrow M. & J.M. Burkholder (2002) Vegetative and sexual reproduction in Pfiesteria ssp. (Dinophyceae) cultured with algal prey, and inferences for their classification. – Harmful Algae 1(1): 5-33.
Parrow M. & J.M. Burkholder (2003a) Estuarine heterotrophic cryptoperidiniopsoids (Dinophyceae): life cycle and culture studies. - Journal of Phycology 39: 678-696.
Parrow M. & J.M. Burkholder (2003b) Reproduction and sexuality in Pfiesteria shumwayae (Dinophyceae). - Journal of Phycology 39: 697-711.
Parrow M. & J.M. Burkholder (2004) The sexual life cycles of  Pfiesteria piscicida and Cryptoperidiniopsids (Dinophyceae). - Journal of Phycology 40(4): 664-673.
Parrow M., J.M. Burkholder, N.J. Deamer & J.S. Ramsdell (2005) Contaminant-free cultivation of Pfiesteria shumwayae (Dinophyceae) on a fish cell line. – Aquatic Microbial Ecology 39: 97-105.
Parrow M., J.M. Burkholder, N.J. Deamer & C. Zhang (2002) Vegetative and sexual reproduction in Pfiesteria ssp. (Dinophyceae) cultured with algal prey, and inferences for their classification. - Harmful Algae 1(1): 5-33.
Parrow M.W., M. Elbrächter, M.K. Krause, J.M. Burkholder, N.J. Deamer, N. Htyte and E.H. Allen (2006) The taxonomy and growth of a Crypthecodinium species (Dinophyceae) isolated from a brackish water fish aquarium. – African Journal of Marine Science 28(2): 185-191.

Parsons M.L., K. Aligizaki, M.-Y. Dechraoui Bottein, S. Fraga, S.L. Morton, A. Penna & L. Rhodes (2012) Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis: reassessment of the state of knowledge of their taxonomy, geography, ecophysiology, and toxicology. - Harmful Algae 14: 107-129.

Partensky F. & A. Sournia (1988) Le dinoflagellé Gyrodinium cf. aureolum dans le plancton de l'Atlantique nord: identification, écology, toxicité. - Cryptogam. Algol. 7: 251-275.
Partensky F. & D. Vaulot (1989) Cell size differentiation in the bloom-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium cf. nagasakiense. – Journal of Phycology 25(4): 741-750.

Pascher A. (1911) Über die Beziehungen der Cryptomonaden zu den Algen. - Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 29: 193-203.
Pascher A. (1914) Über Flagellaten und Algen. - Ber. Deutsche Bot. Ges. 32: 136-160
Pascher A. (1916a) Über eine neue Amöbe - Dinamoeba (varians) - mit dinoflagellatenartigen Schwärmern. - Archiv für Protistenkunde 36: 118-136, pl. 10.
Pascher A. (1916b) Fusionsplasmodien bei Flagellaten und ihre Bedeutung für die Ableitung der Rhizopoden von den Flagellaten. - Archiv für Protistenkunde 37: 31-64 + pl. 3.
Pascher A. (1917) Von der merkwürdigen Bewegungsweise einiger Flagellaten. – Biologisches Zentralblatt 37: 421-429
Pascher A. (1927) Die braune Algenreihe aus der Verwandtschaft der Dinoflagellaten (Dinophyceen). - Archiv für Protistenkunde 58: 1-54.
Pascher A. (1944a) Über neue, protoccoide, festsitzende Algengattungen aus der Verwandtschaft der Dinoflagellaten. – Beihefte zum Botanischen Zentralblatt 62 A: 376-395, pl. 6.
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Passov U. (1991) Vertical migration of Gonyaulax catenata and Mesodinium rubrum. - Marine Biology 110: 455-463.

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Pavillard J. (1905) Recherches sur la flore pélagique (Phytoplankton) de l’Étang de Thau. – Travail de l’Institut de Botanique de l’Université de Montpellier et de la Station Zoologique de Cette, Série mixte, Mémoire 2: 5-116, pls. 1-3.
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Pearce I. & G.M. Hallegraeff (2004) Genetic affinities, ecophysiology and toxicity of Prorocentrum playfairii and P. foveolata (Dinophyceae) from Tasmanian freshwaters. – Phycologia 43(3): 271-281.

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Penna A.
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Penna A., S. Fraga, M. Masó, M.G. Giacobbe, I. Bravo, E. Garcés, M. Vila, E. Bertozzini, F. Andreoni, A. Lugliè & C. Vernesi (2008) Phylogenetic relationships among the Mediterranean Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) species based on sequences of 5.8S gene and Internal Transcript Spacers of the rRNA operon. - European Journal of Phycology 43(2): 163-178.
Penna A., S. Fraga, C. Battocchi, S. Casabianca, M.G. Giacobbe, P. Riobó & C. Vernesi (2010) A phylogeographical study of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis Schmidt. - Journal of Biogeography 37: 830-841.
Penna A., G. Fusco, E. Bertozzini, M.G. Giacobbe, M. Vila, L. Galluzzi, E. Garcés, A. Lugliè, M. Masó & M. Magnani (2006) Monitoring of Alexandrium species in the Mediterranean Sea through a filter system - PCR assay detection method. - African Journal Marine Science. 28(2): 241-243.
Penna A., E. Gangemi, M. Vila, M.G. Giacobbe, E. Garcés, S. Florean & Andreoni F. (2001). A preliminary survey of Ostreopsidaceae (Dinophyta) in the Mediterranean: molecular and morphological analyses of different isolates. - Phycologia 40(4): 51.
Penna A., E. Garcés, M. Vila, M.G. Giacobbe, S. Fraga, A. Lugliè, I. Bravo, E. Bertozzini & C. Vernesi (2005) Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae), a toxic ribotype expanding in the NW Mediterranean Sea. - Marine Biology 148: 13–23.
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Peperzak L., G.J. Snoeijer, R. Dijkema, W.W.C. Gieskes, J. Joordens, J.C.H. Peeters, C. Schol, E.G. Vrieling & W. Zevenboom (1996) Development of a Dinophysis acuminata bloom in the River Rhine plume (North Sea). - In: Harmful and Toxic Algal Blooms. (T. Yasumoto, Y. Oshima & Y. Fukuyo Eds), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris, pp. 273-276.

Percopo I., R. Siano, R. Rossi, V. Soprano, D. Sarno & A. Zingone (2013) A new potentially toxic Azadinium species (Dinophyceae) from the Mediterranean Sea, A. dexteroporum sp. nov. - Journal of Phycology 49(5): 950-966.

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Pérez Blanco E. & J. Lewis (2014) A comparative study of Alexandrium tamarense cyst distribution in Belfast Lough. - European Journal of Phycology 49(2): 255-263.

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Persson A., B.C. Smith, J.H. Alix, Y. Li, B.A. Holohan & G.H. Wikfors (2021) Differences in species mass density between dinoflagellate life stages and relevance to accumulation by hydrodynamic processes. - Journal of Phycology 57(5): 1492-1503.

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