M

last update: 14 November 2018

 

MacIntyre J.G., J.J. Cullen & A.D. Cembella (1997) Vertical migration, nutrition and toxicity in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. - Marine Ecology Progress Series 148: 201-216.

MacKenzie L.
(1992) Does Dinophysis (Dinophyceae) have a sexual life cycle? – Journal of Phycology 28: 399-406.
MacKenzie L., I. Sims, V. Beuzenberg & P. Gillespie (2002) Mass accumulation of mucilage caused by dinoflagellate polysaccharide exudates in Tasman Bay, New Zealand. – Harmful Algae 1(1): 69-83.
MacKenzie L. & K. Todd (2002) Alexandrium camurascututlum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae): a new dinoflagellate species from New Zealand. - Harmful Algae 1(3): 295-300.
MacKenzie L., D. White, Y. Oshima & J. Kappa (1996) The resting cyst and toxicity of Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) in New Zealand. - Phycologia 35: 148-155.

MacLean S.A. & C.L. Rudell (1978) Three new crustacean hosts for the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi (Dinoflagellata: Syndinidae). - Journal of Parasitology 64(1): 158-160.

Maestrini S.Y., R.B. Berland, D. Grzebyk & A.M. Spanò (1995) Dinophysis ssp. Cell concentrated from nature for experimental purposes, using size fractionaion and reverse migration. – Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 9: 177-182.

Maguer J.-F., S. L’Helguen, C. Madec, C. Labry & P. Le Corre (2007) Nitrogen uptake and assimilation kinetics in Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae): effect of N-limited growth rate on nitrate and ammonium interactions. – Journal of Phycology 43(2): 295-303.

Mahoney J.B. & J.J.A. McLaughlin (1979) Salinity influence on the ecology of phytoflagellate blooms in lower New York Bay and adjacent waters. - J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 37: 213-223.

Makino W.
, K. Ito, Y. Oshima & J. Urabe (2008) Effects of Protoceratium reticulatum yessotoxin on feeding rates of Acartia hudsonica: A bioassay using artificial particles coated with purified toxin. - Harmful Algae 7(5): 639-645.

Malinsky-Rushansky N.Z.
, T. Berman, Z. Dubinsky (1997) Seasonal photosynthetic activity of autotrophic picoplankton in Lake Kinneret, Israel. - Journal of Plankton Research 19(8): 979-993.

Mallin M.A., J.M. Burkholder, L.M. Larsen & H.B. Glasgow Jr. (1995) Response of two zooplankton grazers to an ichthyotoxic estuarine dinoflagellate. - Journal of Plankton Research 17: 351-363.

Manier J.-F., A. Fize & H. Grizel (1971) Syndinium gammari n. sp. Péridinien Duboscquodinida Syndinidae, parasite de Gammarus locusta (Lin.) Crustacé Amphipode. - Protistologia 7: 213-219.

Mangin L. (1907) Observations sur la constitution de la membrane chez les Péridiniens. - Comptes Rendues hebdomaires des Scéances de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris 144: 1055 ff ???
Mangin L. (1908??) Sur la flore planctonique de Saint-Vaast-laHougue en 1907-1908. -  Bulletin de la Societé Botanique de France 4e Série, 8: 13 ff?? (from Mangin 1913, 208)
Mangin L. (1908) Sur une méthode d’analyse des organismes du plankton. – Bulletin de la Societé Botanique de France 4e Série, 8: 574 ff.
Mangin L. (1910) Sur quelques algues nouvelles ou peu connues du phytoplankton de l’océan Atlantique. – Bulletin de la Societé Botanique de France 4e Série, 10: 344 ff.
Mangin L. (1911) Observations sur le phytoplankton de la côte occidentale d’Afrique.     ? (from Dangeard 1927). 
Mangin L. (1911) Sur l’existence d’individus dextres & senestres chez certains Péridiniens. - Comptes Rendues hebdomaires des Scéances de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris 153: 27-33.
Mangin L. (1911) Modifications de la cuirasse chez quelques Péridiniens. Note préliminaire. – Internationale Revue für die gesamte Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie 4: 44-54 + pls. 7-8.
Mangin L. (1911) Sur le Peridiniopsis asymetrica & le Peridinium Paulseni. - Comptes Rendues hebdomaires des Scéances de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris 153: 644-649.
Mangin L. (1912) Phytoplancton de la croisière du René dans l’Atlantique. – Annales de l’Institut Océanographique, Monaco 4(1): 1-66 + pls. 1-2.
Mangin L. (1913) Sur la flore planctonique de la rade de Saint-Vaast-La-Hougue 1908-1912. – Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris Série 5, 5: 147-241 + Tab.
Mangin L. (1915) Phytoplancton de l’Antarctique. – In: Deuxième Expédition Antarctique Francaise (1908-1910) commandée par le Dr. Jean Charcot. Sciences Naturelles: Documents Scientifiques. (L. Joubin Ed.): 1-96 + Pl. 1-3.
Mangin L. (1922, 1924 or 1926 ???) Phytoplancton Antarctique (Expédition antarctique de la ‚Scotia’) 1902-1904. – Mém. Acad. Sci. Paris, 62: 1-134.
Mangin L. (1930) Sur quelques pêches planctoniques des mers de Chine & du Japon. – Arch. Mus.  Hist. Nat. Paris 34: 371-380.

Manning,
M. Mackenzie & R.D. Gates (2008) Diversity in populations of free-living Symbiodinium from a Caribbean and Pacific reef. - Limnology and Oceanography 53(5): 1853-1861.

Mansoor S.
& S.M. Saifullah (1995) A new species and new variety of Amphisolenia Stein from the North Arabian Sea bordering Pakistan. - Pakistan Journal of Marine Science 4(1): 5-8.

Mansour M.P., J.K. Volkman, D.G. Holdsworth, A.E. Jackson & S.I. Blackburn (1999) Very-long chain (28C) highly unsaturated fatty acids in a marine dinoflagellates. – Phytochemistry 50(4): 541-548.
Mansour M.P., J.K. Volkman, A.E. Jackson & S.I. Blackburn (1999) The fatty acid and sterol composition of five marine dinoflagellates. – Journal of Phycology 35(4): 710-720.

Mappletoft H., M. Montgomery, J. Waters & P. Wells (1966) A new freshwater dinoflagellate. - New Phytologist 65: 54-58.

Maranda L. (2001) Infection of Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae) by the parasite Amoebophrya sp. (Dinoflagellea). - Journal of Phycology 37(2): 245-248.
Maranda L., D.M. Anderson & Y. Shimizu (1985) Comparision of toxicity between populations of Gonyaulax tamarensis of eastern North American waters. – Estuar. Coastl Shelf Sci 21: 401-410.
Maranda L. & Y. Shimizu (1996) Amphidinium operculatum var. nov. gibbosum (Dinophyceae), a free-swimming marine species producing cytotoxic metabolites. - Journal of  Phycology 32(5): 873-879.

Marasovic I. (1989) Encystment and excystment of Gonyaulax polyedra during a red tide. - Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 28: 35-41.

Marcinko C.L.J., S.C. Painter, A.P. Martin & J.T. Allen (2013) A review of the measurement and modelling of dinoflagellate bioluminescence. - Progress in Oceanography 109: 117-129.

Margalef R. (1961) Hidrografía y fitoplancton de un área marina de la costa meridional de Puerto Rico. - Investigaciones Pesqueras 18: 33-96.
Margalef R. (1961) Fitoplancton atlántico de las costas de Mauretania y Senegal. - Investigaciones Pesqueras 20: 131-143.
Margalef R. (1963) Scaphodinium mirabile nov. gen., nov. sp., un nuevo dinoflagellado aberrante del plancton marino. - Miscelanea Zoologica, Museo de Zoologica, Barcelona 1(5): 3-4.
Margalef R. (1968) Composición y distribución del fitoplancton. - Mems Soc. Cienc. Nat. La Salle 25-1965/67(70-72): 141-205.      (fide Sornia 1973)
Margalef R. (1969) Composicion espécifica del fitoplancton de la costa catalonolevantina (Mediterraneo occidental) en 1962-1967. - Inv. Pesq. 33(1): 345-380.  (fide Sournia 1973)
Margalef R. (1973) Fitoplancton atlántico de las costas de Mauretania y Senegal. II. Composición y distribución del fitoplancton (campaña<<Sahara II>> del <<Cornide de Saavedra>>) – Resultados Expediciones Cientificas del Buque Oceanografico <<Cornide de Saavedra>>, Supplento 2: 65-94.   
Margalef R. (1975) Composition y distribucion del fitoplancton marino en la region de afloramiento del NW de Africa en marzo de 1973 (campana <<Atlor II>> del <<Cornide de Saavedra>>). - Res. Exped. cient. B/O Cornide 4: 145-170.
Margalef R. & M. Duran (1953) Microplancton de Vigo, de Octobre de 1951 a septiembre de 1952. - Publs Inst. Biol. apl. 13: 5-78, tables.   (fide Sournia 1973)

Marin I., A. Aguilera, S. Gonzáles-Gil, B. Reguera & J.P. Abad (2001) A method for preparation of DNA suitable for molecular biology applications from single cell of dinoflagellates. – Biotechniques 30: 88-93.
Marin I., A. Aguilera, B. Reguera & J.P. Abad (2001) Genetic analysis of several species of Dinophysis causing diarrheic shellfish outbreakes in Galicia (NW Spain). - In: Harmful Algal Blooms. (G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch & R.J. Lewis (Eds). - Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris, pp. 222-225.

Markell D.A. & R.K. Trench (1993) Macromolecules exuded by symbiotic dinoflagellates in culture: amino acid and sugar components. – Journal of Phycology 29(1): 64-68.

Marr J.C.
, A.E. Jackson & J.L. McLachlan (1992) Occurence of Prorocentrum lima, a DSP toxin-producing species from the Atlantic coast of Canada. – Journal of Applied Phycology 4: 17-24.

Marshall H.G. (1972) Phytoplankton composition in the south-eastern Pacific between Ecuador and the Galápagos Island (Archipiélago de Colón) - Proce Biol. Soc.Wash. 85: 1-38.
Marshall H.G. (1982) Phytoplankton composition from two saline lakes in San Salvador, Bahamas. - Bulletin of Marine Schience 32(1): 351-353.
Marshall H.G., P.E. Hargraves, J.M. Burkholder, M.W. Parrow, M. Elbrächter, E.H. Allen, V.M. Knowlton, A. Rublee, W.L. Hynes, T.A. Egerton, D.L. Remington, K.B. Wyatt, K.J. Coyne, A.J. Lewitus & V.C. Henrich (2006) Morphologic and genetic relationships in Pfiesteria shumwayae (Dinophyceae) and related dinoflagellates. – Harmful Algae 5: 481-496.
Marshall S.M. (1925) On Proterythropsis vigilans, n. sp.. - Quart. J. Microsc. Soc. N.S. 69: 177-184.

Marsot P. (1997) Variations du volume e des quotas en N et P d’Alexandrium tamarense (dinoflagellata) en culture continue limitant en nitrate. - Oceanologica Acta 20(4): 639-643.

Martin G.W. (1929) Three new dinoflagellates from New Yersey. – Botanical Gazette 87(4): 556-558.
Martin G.W. (1929) Dinoflagellates from marine waters and brackish waters of New Jersey. - University of Iowa  Studies. - Studies in Natural History NS 159: 1-32.

Martínez-Cruz M.E., Y.B. Okolodkov, A.C. Aguillar-Trujillo & J.A. Herrera-Silveira (2015) Epiphytic dinoflagellates on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum at Dzilam, southeastern Gulf of Mexico. - Cymbella 1(3): 2-9.

Maruma T. (1982) Fine structure of the longitudinal flagellum in Ceratium tripos, a marine dinoflagellate. - J. Cell Sci. 58: 109-123.

Masó M. & E. Garcés (2006) Harmful microalgae blooms (HAB); problematic and conditions that induce them. - Marine Pollution Bulletin 53: 620-630.
Masó M., E. Garcés & J. Camp (2003) Drifting plastic debris as a potential vector for dispersing Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) species. - Sciencia Marina 67(1): 107-111.

Mason P.L., R.W. Litaker, H.J. Jeong, J.H. Ha, K.S. Reece, N.A. Stokes, J.Y. Park, K.A. Steidinger, M.W. Vandersea, S.Kibler, P.A. Tester & W.K. Vogelbein (2007) Description of a new genus of Pfiesteriaca-like dinoflagellate, Luciella gen. nov. (Dinophyceae), including two new species: Luciella masanensis sp. nov. and Luciella atlantis sp. nov.. – Journal of Phycology 43(4): 799-810.
Mason P.L., W.K. Vogelbein, L.W. Haas & J.D. Shields (2003) An improved stripping technique for lightly armoured dinoflagellates. - Journal of Phycology 39(1): 253-258.

Massart J. (1920) Recherches sur les organismes inférieurs VIII. Sur la motilité des flagellates. - Bull. Acad. Belg. Cl. Sci Sér.5, 6: 116-141.

Masson-Pévet M., I. Balzer & R. Hardeland (1997) Testing for melatonin receptors in Gonyaulax polyedra. - In: Biological Rhythms and Antioxidative Protection (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 107-109.

Masters B.A. & R.W. Scott (1978) Microstructure, affinities and systematics of Cretaceous calcispheres. - Micropaleontology 24(2): 210-221.

 

Matantseva O., I. Pozdnyakov, M. Voss, I. Liskow & S. Skarlato (2018) The uncoupled assimilation of carbon and nitrogen from urea and glycine by the bloom-forming dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. - Protist 169(5): 603-614.

Mathes J. & H. Arndt (1994) Biomass and composition of protozooplankton in relation to lake trophy in north German lakes. - Marine Microbial Food Webs 8(1-2): 357-375.
Mathes J. & H. Arndt  (1995) Annual cycle of protozooplankton (ciliates, flagellates and sarcodines) in relation to phyto- and metazooplankton in Lake Neumühler See (Mecklenburg, Germany). - Arch. Hydrobiol. 134(3): 337-358.

Matsumoto T., F. Shinozaki, T. Chikuni, A. Yabuki, K. Takishita, M. Kawachi, T. Nakayama, I. Inouye, T. Hashimoto & Y. Inagaki (2011) Green-colored plastids in the dinoflagellate genus Lepidodinium are of core Chlorophyte origin. - Protist 162(2): 268-276.

Matsuoka K. (1974) Some plant microfossils from the Miocene Fujiwara Group, Nara, Central Japan. – Trans. Proc. Paleontol. Soc. Japan, N.S. 94: 319-340, pls. 44-46.
Matsuoka K. (1976) Recent thecate and fossilized dinoflagellates off Hachinohe Coast, Northeastern Japan. – Publications Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 23(3-5): 351-369.
Matsuoka K. (1983) List of synonyms of late Pleistocene to Holocene dinoflagellate cysts. I. Gonyaulax group. - News of Osaka Micropaleontologists 11: 1-32.
Matsuoka K. (1984) Cyst and theca forms of Protoperidinium conicum (Gran) Balech (Dinophyceae). - Jap. J. Phycol. 32: 251-256.
Matsuoka K. (1985a) Archeopyle structure in modern gymnodinialeaen dinoflagellate cysts. – Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 44: 217-231.
Matsuoka K. (1985b) Organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from surface sediments of Nagasaki Bay and Senzaki Bay, West Japan. – Bulletin of the Faculty of Liberal Arts, Nagasaki University/ Natural Science 25(2): 21-115.
Matsuoka K. (1985c) Cyst and thecate forms of Pyrophacus steinii (Schiller) Wall & Dale, 1971. - Trans. Proc. Palaeontol. Soc. Japan 140: 240-262.
Matsuoka K. (1987a) Organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from surface sediments of Akkeshi Bay and Lake Saroma, North Japan. – Bull. Faculty of Liberal Arts, Nagasaki Univ., (Natural Science) 28(1): 35-123.
Matsuoka K. (1987b) Late Cenozoic dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy from the west coast of northern Japan. – Micropalaentology 33(3): 214-229, pls. 1-2.
Matsuoka K. (1988) Cyst-theca relationships in the Diplopsalis group (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae). – Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 56: 95-122. 
Matsuoka K. (1992) Seasonal variability of palymorphs in a JT-03 sediment trap settled in the Japan Trench. – Bulletin of the Faculty of Liberal Arts, Nagasaki University, Natural Science 32(2): 221-233.
Matsuoka K. & Y. Fukuyo (1986) Cyst and motile morphology of a colonial dinoflagellate Pheopolykrikos hartmannii (Zimmermann) comb. nov. – Journal of Plankton Research 8: 811-818. 
Matsuoka K., Y. Fukuyo & D.M. Anderson (1988) The cyst and theca of Gonyaulax verior Sournia (Dinophyceae) and their implication for the systematics of the Genus Gonyaulax. – The Japanese Journal of Phycology 36(4): 311-320.
Matsuoka K., Y. Fukujo, D.P. Praseno & Q. Adnan (1998) Pyrodinium bahamense cysts in surface sediments of Jakarta Bay and off Ujung Pandang, Indonesia. - In: Harmful Algae. (B. Reguera, J. Blanco, M.L. Fernández & T. Wyatt Eds) – Xunta de Galicia and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Santiago de Compostela, pp. 63. 
Matsuoka K. & M.J. Head (1992) Taxonomic revision of the neogene marine palymorphs Cyclopsiella granosa (Matsuoka) and Baltishaera minuta (Matsuoka), and a new species of Pyxidinopsis Habib (Dinophyceae) from the Miocene of the Labrador Sea. – In: Neogene and Quarternary Dinoflagellate Cysts and Acritarchs (M.J. Head & J.H. Wrenn Eds) American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation, Dallas pp. 165-180.
Matsuoka K., H. Kawami, R. Fujii & M. Iwataki (2006) Further examination of the cyst-theca relationship of Protoperidinium thulesense (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae) and the phylogenetic significance of round brown cysts. – Phycologia 45(6): 632-641.
Matsuoka K., H. Kawami, S. Nagai, M. Iwataki & H Takayama (2009) Re-examination of cyst-motile relationships of Polykrikos kofoidii Chatton and Polykrikos schwartzii Bütschli (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae). - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 154: 79-90.
Matsuoka K., S. Kobayashi & G. Gaines (1990) A new species of the genus Ensiculifera (Dinophyceae); ist cyst and motile forms. - Bulletin of Plankton Society of Japan 37(2): 127-143.
Matsuoka K., P. Pholpunthin & Y. Fukuyo (1998) Is the archaetype of Tuberculodinium vancampoae (Rossignol) Wall (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) on the hypocyst? - Palaeontological Research 2: 183-192.

Matthiessen J.
, A. De Vernal, M. Head, Y. Okolodkov, K. Zonneveld & R. Harland (2005) Modern organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in Arctic marine environments and their (paleo-)environmental significance. - Paläontologische Zeitschrift 79(1): 3-51.

Matvijenko O.M.
& R.M. Litvinenko (1977)  Pirofitovi vodorrosti - Pyrrophyta. Vyznacnyk prisnovodnych vodorostej Ukrajins’koji RSR 3(2): 1-386; Naukova Dumka, Kijiv.

Matzenauer L. (1933) Die Dinoflagellaten des Indischen Ozeans (Mit Ausnahme der Gattung Ceratium). - Botanisches Archiv 35(4): 437-510.

Maurin N., C. Amblard & G. Bourdier (1995) Vertical and seasonal variations of inorganic carbon allocation into macromelecules by phytoplankton population in a brown-colored and a clear-water lake. - Hydrobiologia 300/301: 57-70.

Mayali X., P.J.S. Franks, Y. Tanaka & F. Azam (2008) Bacteria-induced motility reduction in Lingulodinium polyedrum (Dinophyceae). - Journal of Phycology 44(4): 923-928.

Mays M.M. & S.C. Kempf (2014) Antigenic variation in mucilage secreted by members of the genus Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae). - Journal of Phycology 50(5): 850-859.

Mbachu E.M. & R. Hardeland (1997) Stimulation of bioluminescence by 5-methoxy-tryptamine in an Alexandrium species. - In: Biological rhythms and antioxidative protection (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 113-115.
Mbachu E.M. & R. Hardeland (1999) Effects of mastoparan on bioluminescence in Gonyaulax spinifera. - In: Studies on antioxidants and their metabolites (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 172-176.

McBride B.B., G. Muller-Parker & H.H. Jakobsen (2009) Low thermal limit of growth rate of Symbiodinium californium (Dinophyta) in culture may restrict the symbiont to southern populations of its host anemones (Anthopleura spp.; Anthozoa, Cnidaria). - Journal of Phycology 45(4): 855-863.

McCarthy F.G., K.N. Mertens, M. Ellegaard, V. Pospelova, S. Ribeiro & D. Vercauteren (2011) Resting cysts of freshwater dinoflagellates in southeastern Georgian Bay (Lake Huron) as proxies of cultural eutrophication. - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 166: 46-62.

McCarthy F.M.G., H. Gu, K.N. Mertens,C. Carbonell-Moore, A.M. Krueger, Y. Takano & K. Matsuoka (2018) Transferring the freshwater dinoflagellate Peridinium wisconsinense (Dinophyceae) to the family Thoracosphaeraceae, with the description of Fusiperidinium gen. nov. - Phycological Research 66: 137-148.


McCauley L.A.R., D.L. Erdner, S. Nagai, M.L. Richlen & D.M. Anderson (2009) Biogeographic analysis of the globally distributed harmful algal bloom species Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) based on rRNA gene sequences and microsatellite markers. - Journal of Phycology 45(2): 454-463.

McEwan M., Humayun R., Slamovits C.H. & P.J. Keeling (2008) Nuclear genome sequence survey of the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra. - Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 55(6): 530-535.

McGinley M.P., D.J. Suggett & M.E. Warner (2013) Transcript patterns of chloroplast-encoded genes in cultured Symbiodinium spp. (Dinophyceae): testing the influence of a light shift and diel peridiocity. - Journal of Phycology 49(4): 709-718.

McGinnis S.K., D.C. Vaders Jr., G. Troutman & J.R. Holt (1996) Phagotrophy in a dinoflagellate: role of pectin in substrate adhesion. - American Zoologist 35(5): 115A.

McIlroy S.E., P. Gillette, R. Cunning, A. Klueter, T. Capo, A.C. Baker & M.A. Coffroth (2016) The effects of Symbiodinium (Pyrrhophyta) identity on growth, survivorship, and thermal tolerance of newly settled coral recruits. - Journal of Phycology 52: 1114-1124.

McLachlan J.L. (1993) Evidence for sexuality in species of Dinophysis. – In: Smayda T.J. & Y. Shimizu (Eds) Toxic phytoplankton blooms. Elsevier Amsterdam, p. 143-146. 
McLachlan J.L., G.T. Boalch & R. Jahn (1997) Reinstatement of the genus Exuviaella (Dinophyceae, Prorocentrophycidae) and assessment of Prorocentrum lima. – Phycologia 36(1): 38-46.

McLean N. & C.P. Galt (1990) Apodinium floodi n. sp., a dinoflagellate (Dinoflagellata: Apodinidae) ectoparasitic on Oikopleura labradoriensis (Urochordata: Larvaceae). – Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 9: 213-219.
McLean N. & C. Nielsen (1989) Oodinium jordani n. sp., a dinoflagellate (Dinoflagellata: Oodinidae) ectoparasitic on Sagitta elegans (Chaetognatha). - Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 7: 61-66.

McMinn A. & F.J. Scott (2005) Dinoflagellates. – In: Antarctic Marine Protists (F.J. Scott & H.J. Marchant, Eds) – ABRS and AAD, Canberra and Hobart, pp. 202-250. 

Meave del Castillo E., Zamudio Resendiz, E., Y.B. Okolodkov & I.H. Saldago Ugarte (2003) Ceratium balechii sp. nov. (Dinophyceae: Gonyaulacales) from the Mexican Pacific. – Hidrobiológica 13(1): 75-91. 

Medlin L.K., M. Lange, U. Wellbrock, G. Donner, M. Elbrächter, C. Hummert, B. Luckas  (1998) Sequence comparisions link toxic European isolates of Alexandrium tamarense from the Orkney Islands to toxic North American Stocks. - European Journal of  Protistology 34: 329-335.
Medlin L.K. (2011) The Permian-Triassic mass extinction forces the radiation of the modern marine phytoplankton. - Phycologia 50(6): 684-693.
Medlin L.K., M. Montresor, E. Graneli, B. Reguera, R. Raine, B. Edvardsen, J. Lewis, C. Elliott, Y. Pazos & L. Maranda (2013) MIDTAL (Microarrays for the Detection of Toxic Algae). - Phytotaxa 127(1): 201-210.

Meichtry de Zarburlín N., R.E. Vogler, M.J. Molina & V.M. Llano (2016) Potential distribution of the invasive freshwater dinoflagellate Ceratium furcoides (Levander) Langhans (Dinophyta) in South America. - Journal of Phycology 52(2): 200-208.

Meier K.J.S., C. Höll & H. Willems (2004) Effect of temperature on culture growth and cyst production in the calcareous dinoflagellates Calciodinellum albatrosianum, Leonella granifera and Pernambugia tuberosa. – In: M. Triantaphyllou (Ed.) Adavances in the biology, ecology and taphonomy of extant calcareous nanoplankton. Micropaleontology 50(Suppl. 1): 93-106.
Meier K.J.S., D. Janofske & H. Willems (2002) New calcareous dinoflagellates (Calciodinelloideae) from the Mediterranena Sea. - Journal of Phycology 38(3): 602-615.
Meier K.J.S. & H. Willems (2003) Calcareous dinoflagellate cysts in surface sediments from the Mediterranean Sea: distribution patterns and influence of main environmental gradients. – Marine Micropaleontology 48: 321-354.
Meier S., J.R. Young, M. Kirsch & S. Feist-Burckhardt (2007) Evolution of different life-cycle strategies in oceanic calcareous dinoflagellates. – European Journal of Phycology 42(1): 81-89.

Meksumpun S., S. Montani & M. Uematsu (1994) Elemental components of cyst walls of three marine phytoflagellates, Chattonella antiqua (Raphidiophyceae), Alexandrium catenella and Scrippsiella trochoidea (Dinophyceae). - Phycologia 33: 275-280.

Melkonian M. & I. Hölfeld (1988) Amphiesmal ultrastructure in Noctiluca miliaris Suriray (Dinophyceae) - Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 42: 601-612.

Melo A.C., P.D.R. Moeller, H.B.Jr. Glasgow, J.M. Burkholder & J.D. Ramsdell (2001) Microfluorimetric analysis of a purinergic receptor (P2X7) in GH4C1 rat pituitary cells: Effects of a bioactive substance produced by Pfiesteria piscicida. - Environmental Health Perspectives 109(Suppl. 5): 731-737.

Menden-Deuer S. & E.J. Lessard (2000) Carbon to volume relationships for dinoflagellates, diatoms, and other protist plankton. - Limnology and Oceanography 45(3): 569-579.

Mendez G.S., C.F. Delwiche, K.E. Apt & J.C. Lippmeier (2015) Dinoflagellate gene structure and intron splice sites in a genomic tandem array. - Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 62: 679-687.

Menezes M., D. Varela, L.A. de Oliveira Proenca, M. da Silva Tamanaha & J. Paredes (2010) Identification of the toxic alga Alexandrium tamiyavanichi (Dinophyceae) from northeastern Brazil: a combined morphological andrDNA sequence(partial LSU and ITS) approach. - Journal of Phycology 46(6): 1239-1251. 

Merino-Virgilio F. del C., Y.B. Okolodkov, A.C. Aguillar-Trujillo & J.A. Herrera-Silveira (2013) Phytoplankton of the northern coastal and shelf waters of the Yucatan Peninsula, southeastern Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. - Check List 9(4): 771-779.

Mertens K.N., C. González, I. Delusina & S. Louwye (2009) 30000 years of productivity and salinity variations in the late Quaternary Cariaco Basin revealed by dinoflagellate cysts. - Boreas 38: 647-662.
Mertens K.N., M. Lynn, M. Aycard, H.-L. Lin & S. Louwye (2009) Coccolithophores as paleoecological indicators for shift of the ITCZ in the Cariaco Basin. - Journal of Quaternary Science 24(2): 159-174.
Mertens K.N., S. Ribeiro, I. Bouimetarhan, H. Caner, N. Combourieu Nebout, B. Dale, A. de Vernal, M. Ellegaard, M. Filipova, A. Godhe, E. Goubert, K. Grøsfjeld, U. Holzwarth, U. Kotthoff, S.A.G. Leroy, L. Londeix, F. Marret, K. Matsuoka, P.J. Mudie, L. Naudts, J.L. Peña-Manjarrez, A. Persson, S.-M. Popescu, V. Pospelova, F. Sangiorgi, M. van der Meer, A. Vink, K.A.F. Zonneveld, D. Vercauteren, J. Vlassenbroeck & S. Louwye (2009) Process length variation in cysts of a dinoflagellate, Lingulodinium machaerophorum, in surface sediments: Investigating its potential as salinity proxy. - Marine Micropaleontology 70(1-2): 54-69.
Mertens K.N., K. Verhoeven, T. Verleye, S. Louwye, A. Amorim, S. Ribeiro, A.S. Deaf, I. Harding, S. De Schepper, M. Kodrans-Nsiah, A. de Vernal, T. Radi, K. Dybkjaer, N.E. Poulsen, S. Feist-Burkhardt, J. Chitolie, C. González Arango, C. Heilmann-Clausen, L. Londeix, J.-L. Turon, F. Marret, J. Matthiessen, F.M.G. McCarthy, V. Prasad, V. Pospelova, J.E. Kyffin Hughes, J.B. Riding, A. Rochon, F. Sangiorgi, N. Welters, N. Sinclair, C. Thun, A. Soliman, N. Van Nieuwenhove, A. Vink & M. Young (2009) Determining the absolute abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments: the Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test. - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.
Mertens K.N., B. Dale, M. Ellegaard, I.-M. Jansson, A. Godhe, A. Kremp & S. Louwye (2010) Process length variation in cysts of the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum, from surface sediments of the Baltic-Kattegat-Skagerrak estuarine system: a regional salinity proxy. - Boreas 40: 242-255.
Mertens K.N., K. Rengefors, O. Moestrup & M. Ellegaard (2012) A review of recent freshwater dinoflagellate cysts: taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology and palaecology. - Phycologia 51(6): 612-619.  
Mertens K.N., M. Bringué, N. Van Nieuwenhove, Y. Takano, V. Pospelova, A. Rochon, A. de Vernal, T. Radi, B. Dale, R.T. Patterson, K. Weckström, E. Andrén, S. Louwye & K. Matsuoka (2012) Process length variation of the cyst of the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum in the North Pacific and Baltic-Skagerrak region: calibration as annual density proxy and first evidence of pseudo-cryptic speciation. - Journal of Quaternary Science 27(7): 734-744. 
Mertens K.N., A. Yamaguchi, H. Kawami, S. Ribeiro, B.S. Leander, A.M. Price, V. Pospelova, M. Ellegaard & K. Matsuoka (2012) Archaeperidinium saanichi sp. nov.: a new species based on morphological variation of cyst and theca within the Archaeperidinium minutum Jörgensen 1912 species complex. - Marine Micropaleontology 96-97:48-62.
Mertens K.N., A. Price & V. Pospelova (2012) Determining the absolute abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments II: further tests of the Lycopodium marker-grain method. - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 184: 74-81.
Mertens K.N., L.R. Bradley, Y. Takano, P.J. Mudie, F. Marret, A.E. Aksu, R.N. Hiscott, T.J. Verleye, E.A. Mousing, L.L. Smyrnova, S. Bagheri, M. Mansor, V. Pospelova & K. Matsuoka (2012) Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length. - Quaternary Science Reviews 39: 45-59.
Mertens K.N., A. Yamaguchi, Y. Takano, V. Pospelova, M.J. Head, T. Radi, A.J. Pieńkowski, A. de Vernal, H. Kawami & K. Matsuoka (2013) A new heterotrophic dinoflagellate from the Northeastern Pacific, Protoperidinium fukuyoi: cyst–theca relationship, phylogeny, distribution and ecology. - Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 60(6): 545-563.
Mertens K.N., Y. Takano, M.J. Head & K. Matsuoka (2014) Living fossils in the Indo-Pacific warm pool: a refuge for thermophilic dinoflagellates during glaciations. - Geology 42: 531-534.
Mertens K.N., J. Wolny, C. Carbonell-Moore, K. Bogus, M. Ellegaard, A. Limoges, A. de Vernal, P. Gurdebeke, T. Omura, A. Al-Muftah & K. Matsuoka (2015) Taxonomic re-examination of the toxic armored dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense Plate 1906: can morphology or LSU sequencing separate P. bahamense var. compressum from var. bahamense? - Harmful Algae 41: 1-24.
Mertens K.N., H. Aydin, S. Uzar, Y. Takano, A. Yamaguchi & K. Matsuoka (2015) Relationship between the dinoflagellate cyst Spiniferites pachydermus and Gonyaulax ellegaardiae sp. nov. from Izmir Bay, Turkey, and molecular characterization. - Journal of Phycology 51: 560-573. 
Mertens K.N., Y. Takano, H. Gu, A. Yamaguchi, V. Pospelova, M. Ellegaard & K. Matsuoka (2015) Cyst-theca relationship of a new dinoflagellate with a spiny round brown cyst, Protoperidinium lewisiae sp. nov., and its comparison to the cyst of Oblea acanthocysta. - Phycological Research 63: 110-124.
Mertens K.N., Y. Takano, A. Yamaguchi, H. Gu, K. Bogus, A. Kremp, S. Bagheri, G. Matishov & K. Matsuoka (2015) The molecular characterization of the enigmatic dinoflagellate Kolkwitziella acuta reveals an affinity to the Excentrica section of the genus Protoperidinium. - Systematics and Biodiversity 13(6): 509-524. 

Mertens K.N., H. Gu, V. Pospelova, N. Chomérat, E. Nézan, P.R. Gurdebeke, K. Bogus, H. Vrielinck, M. Rumebe & C. Meteigner (2017) First record of resting cysts of the benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum leve in a natural reservoir in Gujan-Mestras, Gironde, France. - Journal of Phycology 53: 1193-1205.

Mertens K.N., Y. Takano, H. Gu, S. Bagheri, V. Pospelova, A.J. Pienkowski, S.A.G. Leroy & K. Matsuoka (2017) Cyst-theca relationship and phylogenetic position of Impagidinium caspiense incubated from Caspian Sea surface sediments: realtion to Gonyaulax baltica and evidence for heterospory within gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates. - Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 64: 829-842.
Mertens K.N., C. Carbonell-Moore, V. Pospelova, M.J. Head, A. Highfield, D. Schroeder, H. Gu, K.B. Andree, M. Fernandez, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Takano, K. Matsuoka, E. Nézan, G. Bilien, Y. Okolodkov, K. Koike, M. Hoppenrath, M. Paff, G. Pitcher, A. Al-Muftah, A. Rochon, P.T. Lim, C.P. Leaw, Z.F. Lim & M. Ellegaard (2018) Pentaplacodinium saltonense gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) and its relationship to the cyst-defined genus Operculodinium and yessotoxin-producing Protoceratium reticulatum. - Harmful Algae 71: 57-77.

Mertens K.N., C. Carbonell-Moore, V. Pospelova & M.J. Head (2018) Ceratocorys mariaovidiorum P.Salgado, S.Fraga, F.Rodriguez, P. Riobó & I.Bravo is a junior synonym of Pentaplacodinium saltonense K.N.Mertens, M.C.Carbonell-Moore, V.Pospelova & M.J. Head. - Notulae algarum 45: 1-2.

Mertens K.N., N. Chomérat, E. Nézan & C. Carbonell-Moore (2018) The correct orthography for the epithet of Gonyaulax digitale, a common dinoflagellate in marine waters. - Notulae algarum 49: 1-3.


Messick G.A. (1994) Hematodinium perezi infections in adult and juvenile blue crabs Callinectes sapidus from coastal bays of Maryland and Virginia, USA. - Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 19: 77-82.
Messick G.A., S.J. Jordan & W.F. van Heukelem (1999) Salinity and temperature effects on Hematodinium sp. in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. - Journal of Shellfish Research 18(2): 657-662.

Meunier A. (1910) Microplancton des mers de Barents & de Kara. In: Duc d'Orléans Campagne Arctique de 1907. - Bulens, Bruxelles, 355 pp + 36 pls.
Meunier A. (1919) Microplancton de la mer Flamande. 3. Les Péridiniens. - Mémoires du Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 8(1): 1-116.
Meunier F.A., J.A. Mercado, J. Molgo, T.R. Tosteson & G.E. De Motta (1997) Selective depolarization of the muscle membrane in frog nerve-muscle preparations by a chromatographically purified extract of the dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis. – British Journal of Pharmacology 121: 1224-1230.

Meyer T.J. & R. Hardeland (1995) Demonstration of the acidic vacuole in Gonyaulax by vital staining. - In: Cellular Rhythms and Indoleamines (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 96-98.
Meyer T.J. & R. Hardeland (1995) Effects of bafilomycin A1 on bioluminescence in Gonyaulax polyedra. - In: Cellular Rhythms and Indoleamines (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 99-105.
Meyer T.J. & R. Hardeland (1995) Effects of pH on circadian phase of Gonyaulax glow maximum are conditional. - In: Cellular Rhythms and Indoleamines (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 92-95.

Meyer-Harms B. & F. Pollehne (1998) Alloxanthine in Dinophysis norvegica (Dinophysiales, Dinophyceae) from the Baltic Sea. - Journal of Phycology 34: 272-280.

Meyers T.R. (1990) Diseases caused by Protistans and Metazoa. In: Diseases of Marine Animals. Ed. O. Kinne. Hamburg: Biologische Anstalt Helgoland. 3:350  389.
Meyers T.R., C.Botelho, T.M. Koeneman, S. Short & K. Imamura (1990) Distribution of bitter crab dinoflagellate syndrome in southeast Alaskan Tanner crabs Chionoecctes bairdi. - Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 9: 37-43.
Meyers T.R., T.M. Koeneman, C. Botelho & S. Short (1987) Bitter crab disease: a fatal dinoflagellate infection and marketing problem for Alaskan Tanner crabs Chionoecetes bairdi. - Diseases of  Aquatic Organisms 3: 195-216.
Meyers T.R., D.V. Lightner & R.M. Redman (1994) A dinoflagellate-like parasite in Alaskan spot shrimp Pandalus platyceros and pink shrimp P. borealis. - Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 18: 71-76.
Meyers T.R., J.F. Morado, A.K. Sparks, G.H. Bishop, T. Pearson, D. Urban & D. Jackson (1996) Distribution of Bitter Crab Syndrome in Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi, C. opilio) from the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea. - Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 26: 221-227.

Michaelis G.A. (1830) Über das Leuchten der Ostsee nach eigenen Beobachtungen, nebst einigen Bemerkungen über diese Erscheinung in anderen Meeren. - Hamburg, Perthes und Besser, 52 Seiten + 2 Tafeln.

Michajlov N.F. & I.N. Czeczik (1974) De algoflora planctonica piscinarum prope pagum Ropscha. - Nov. Sist. Nizmil. Rast. 11: 100-103.  [in Russian]

Mijares A.J., C. Sevcik, C.A. Barboza & J.A. Saavedra (1985) Ichthyotoxism by a paralytic toxin produced by marine dinoflagellates of the genus Ceratium: relationship to fraction ß isolated from the sponge Tedania ignis. - Toxicon 23: 221-233.

Miller J.J., C.F. Delwiche & D.W. Coats (2012) Ultrastructure of Amoebophrya sp. and its changes during the course of infection. - Protist 163(5): 720-745.
Miller T.R. & R. Belas (2001) Bacterial population complexity in cultures of Pfiesteria dinoflagellates. - Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology pp. 101: 490.

Mills C.E. & N. McLean (1991) Ectoparasitism by a dinoflagellate (Dinoflagellata: Oodinidae) on 5 ctenophores (Ctenophora) and a hydromedusa (Cnidaria). - Dis. Aquat. Org. 10: 211-216.

Moestrup Ø. (2000) The flagellate Cytoskeleton: Introduction of a general terminology for microtubular roots in protists. – In: B.S.C. Leadbeater & J.C. Green (Eds) The Flagellates. Unity, diversity and evolutuion. – Systematic Association, Spec. Vol. 59. Taylor and Francis London, pp 67-94.
Moestrup Ø. & N. Daugbjerg (2008) On dinoflagellate phylogeny and classification. - In: J. Brodie & J. Lewis (Eds) Unravelling the algae - the past, present, and future of algal systematics. - The Systematics Association Special Volume Series 75, CRC Press, Boca Raton, London, New York, pp 215-230.
Moestrup Ø., P.J. Hansen (1988) On the occurrence of the potentially toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense (= Gonyaulax excavata) and Alexandrium ostenfeldii in Danish and Faroese waters. - Ophelia 28: 195-213.
Moestrup Ø., G. Hansen & N. Daugbjerg (2008) Studies on woloszynskoid dinoflagellates III: on the ultrastructure and phylogeny of Borghiella dodgei gen. et sp. nov., a cold-water species from Lake Tovel, N. Italy, and on B. tenuissima comb. nov. (syn. Woloszynskia tenuissima). - Phycologia 47: 54-78.
Moestrup Ø., G. Hansen, N. Daugbjerg, G. Flaim & M. D’andrea (2006) Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates II: On Tovellia sanguinea sp. nov.,  the dinoflagellate responsible for the reddeningof Lake Tovel, N. Italy. – European Journal of Phycology 41(1): 47-65.
Moestrup Ø., P. Hakanen, G. Hansen, N. Daugbjerg & M. Ellegaard (2014) On Levanderina fissa gen. & comb. nov. (Dinophyceae) (syn. Gymnodinium fissum, Gyrodinium instriatum, Gyr. uncatenum), a dinoflagellate with a very unusual sulcus. - Phycologia 53(3): 265-292. 

Mohammad-Noor N., Ø. Moestrup, N. Lundholm, S. Fraga, A. Adam, M.J. Holmes & E. Saleh (2013) Autecology and phylogeny of Coolia tropicalis and Coolia malayensis (Dinophyceae), with emphasis on taxonomy of C. tropicalis based on light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and LSU rDNA. - Journal of Phycology 49(3): 536-545. 

Mohammad-Noor N.A. Adam, P.T. Lim, C.P. Leaw, W.L.S. Lau, G.R. Liow, N. Muhamad-Bunnori, N.-A. Hamdan, A. Md-Nor, N. Kemat & D. Muniandi (2018) First report of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) caused by Alexandrium tamiyavanichii in Kuantan Port, Pahang, east coast of Malaysia. - Phycological Research 66: 37-44.


Moita M.T. & M.A. de M. Sampayo (1993) Are there cysts in the genus Dinophysis ? - In: Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the Sea. (T.J. Smayda & Y. Shimizu Eds) Elsevier Sci. Publ. pp. 153-157.

Moldrup M., Ø. Moestrup & P.J. Hansen (2013) Loss of phototaxis and degeneration of an eyespot in long-term algal cultures: evidence from ultrastructure and behaviour in the dinoflagellate Kryptoperidinium foliaceum. - Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 60: 327-334.

Momigliano P., L. Sparrow, D. Blair & K. Heimann (2013) The diversity of Coolia spp. (Dinophyceae Ostreopsidaceae) in the central Great Barrier Reef region. - PLoS ONE 8(10): e79278.

Moncheva S., O. Gotsis-Skretas, K. Pagou & A. Krastev (2001) Phytoplankton blooms in Black Sea and Mediterranean Coastal ecosystems subjected to anthropogenic eutrophication: similarities and differences. - Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf  Science 53: 281-295.

Monroe E.A. & F.M. Van Dolah (2008) The toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis encodes novel type I-like polyketide synthases containing discrete catalytic domains. - Protist 159: 471-482.
Monroe E.A., J.G. Johnson, Z. Wang, R.K. Pierce & F.M. Van Dolah (2010) Characterization and expression of nuclear-encodedpolyketide synthases in the brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. - Journal of Phycology 46(3): 541-552.

Monteiro J.G., C.F. Costa, K. Gorlach-Lira, W.K. Fitt, S.S. Stefanni, R. Sassi, R.S. Santos & T.C. La Jeunesse (2013) Ecological and biogeographic implications of Siderastrea symbiotic relationship with Symbiodinium sp. C46 in Sal Island (Cape Verde, east Atlantic Ocean). - Marine Biodiversity 43: 261-272.

Montresor M. (1995a) Scrippsiella ramonii sp. nov. (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae) a marine dinoflagellate producing a calcareous resting cyst. - Phycologia 34(1): 87-91.
Montresor M. (1995b) The life history of Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). – Phycologia 34(6): 444-448.
Montresor M., D. Janofske & H. Willems (1997) The cyst-theca relationship in Calciodinellum operosum emend. (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae) and a new approach for the study of calcarious cysts. - Journal of Phycology 33(1): 122-131.
Montresor M., U.John, A. Beran & L.K. Medlin (2004) Alexandrium tamutum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae): a new nontoxic species in the genus Alexandrium. – Journal of Phycology 40: 398-411.
Montresor M. & J. Lewis (2005) Phases, Stages and shifts in the life cycle of marine phytoplankton. - In Algal Cultures, Analogues and Applications ed. D.V. Subba Rao. Science Publishers Inc. New Hampshire USA. pp. 91-129.
Montresor M., C. Lovejoy, L. Orsini, G. Procaccini & S. Roy (2003) Bipolar distribution of the cyst-forming dinoflagellate Polarella glacialis. - Polar Biology 26: 186-194.
Montresor M. & D. Marino (1994) New observations on the life cycle of Pyrophacus horologium Stein (Dinophyceae). – Boletino della Societa Adriatica di Scienze 75(2): 261-268.
Montresor M. & D. Marino (1994) Modulating effect of cold-dark storage on excystment in Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax (Dinophyceae). – Marine Biology 127: 55-60.
Montresor M., D. Marino, A. Zingone & G. Dafnis (1990) Three Alexandrium species from coastal Tyrrheninan waters (Mediterranean Sea.). - In: Toxic Marine Phytoplankton (E. Granéli, B. Sundström, L. Edler & D.M. Anderson Eds). – Elsevier, New York, Amsterdam, London, pp. 82-87.
Montresor M., E. Montesarchino, D. Marino & A. Zingone (1994) Calcareous dinoflagellate cysts in marine sediments of the Gulf of Naples. – Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 84: 45-56.
Montresor M., G. Procaccini & D.K. Stoecker (1999) Polarella glacialis, gen. nov., sp. nov, (Dinophyceae): Suessiaceae are still alive! - Journal of Phycology 35(1): 186-197.
Montresor M., S. Sgrosso, G. Procaccini & W.H.C.F. Kooistra (2003) Intraspecific diversity in Scrippsiella trochoidea (Dinophyceae): evidence for cryptic species. - Phycologia 42(1): 56-70.
Montresor M. & A. Zingone (1988) Scrippsiella precaria sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a marine dinoflagellate from the Gulf of Naples. - Phycologia 27(3): 387-394.
Montresor M., A. Zingone & D. Marino (1993) The calcareous resting cyst of Penthapharsodinium tyrrhenicum comb. nov. (Dinophyceae). - Journal of Phycology 29: 223-230.
Montresor M., A. Zingone & D. Marino (1993) The paratabulate resting cyst of Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax (Dinophyceae). - In: Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the Sea. (T.J. Smayda & Y. Shimizu Eds) Elsevier Sci. Publ., pp. 159-164.
Montresor M., A. Zingone & D. Sarno (1998) Dinoflagellate cyst production at a coastal Mediterranean site. – Journal of Plankton Research 20(12): 2291-2312.

Moon E., S.W. Nam, W. Shin, M.G. Park & D.W. Coats (2015) Do all dinoflagellates have an extranuclear spindle? - Protist 166(5): 569-584.

Mooney B.D., P.D. Nichols, M.F. de Salas & G.M. Hallegraeff (2007) Lipid fatty acid and sterol composition of 8 species of Kareniaceae (Dinophyta): chemotaxonomy and putative lipid phycotoxins. – Journal of Phycology 43(1): 101-111.
Mooney B.D., M. de Salas, G.M. Hallegraeff & A.R. Place (2009) Survey for Karlotoxin production in 15 species of gymnodinioid dinoflagellates (Kareniaceae, Dinophyta). - Journal of Phycology 45(1): 164-175.

Morey-Gaines G. & R.H. Ruse (1980) Encystment and reproduction of the predatory dinoflagellate, Polykrikos kofoidi Chatton (Gymnodiniales). Phycologia 19(3): 230-236.

Morill L.C. & A.R. Loeblich III (1981a) The dinoflagellate pellicular wall layer and its occurrence in the dicision Pyrrhophyta. – Journal of Phycology 17: 315-323.
Morill L.C. & A.R. Loeblich III (1981b) A survey for body scales in dinoflagellates and a revision of Cachonina and Heterocapsa (Pyrrhophyta). - Journal of Plankton Research 3(1): 53-65.
Morill L.C. & A.R. Loeblich III (1983a) Ultrastructure of the dinoflagellate amphiesma. – International Review of Cytology 82: 151-180.
Morill L.C. & A.R. Loeblich III (1983b) Formation and release of body scales in the dinoflagellate genus Heterocapsa. - Journal of the Marine Biological Association, U.K. 6: 905-913.
Morill L.C. & A.R. Loeblich III (1984) Cell division and deformation of the amphiesma in the pelliculate dinoflagellate Heterocapsa niei. – Journal of the Marine Biological Association, U.K. 64: 939-953.

Mornin L. & D. Francis (1967) The fine structure of Nematodinium armatum, a naked dinoflagellate. - J. Microsc. 6: 759-772.

Morozova T.V., T.Y. Orlova, K.V. Efimova, A.Y. Lazaryuk & B.A. Burov (2016) Scrippsiella trochoidea cysts in recent sediments from Amur Bay, sea of Japan: distribution and phylogeny. - Botanica Marina 59(2-3): 159-172.

Morquecho L. (2008) Morphology of Pyrodinium bahamense Plate (Dinoflagellata) near Isla San José, Gulf of California, Mexico. - Harmful Algae 7(5): 664-670.
Morquecho L., R. Alonso-Rodríguez, J.A. Arreola-Lizárraga & A. Reyes-Salinas (2012) Factors associated with moderate blooms of Pyrodinium bahamense in shallow and restricted subtropical logoons in the Gulf of California. - Botanica Marina 55(6): 611-623.  
Morquecho L.
, R. Alonso-Rodríguez & G.A. Martínez-Tecuapacho (2014) Cyst morphology, germination characteristics, and potential toxicity of Pyrodinium bahamense in the Gulf of California. - Botanica Marina 57(4): 303-314.  

Morris R.L. & P.J. Rizzo (2001) Protein sequence analysis of the histone-like protein HCC from the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii (Pyrrophyta). - Journal of Phycology 37(3) Suppl.: 36.

Morse D., P. Daoust & S. Benribague (2016) A transcriptome-based perspective of cell cycle regulation in dinoflagellates. - Protist 167(6): 610-621.

Morton S.L. (1998) Morphology and toxicology of Prorocentrum faustiae sp. nov., a toxic species of non-planktonic dinoflagellate from Heron Island, Australia. - Botanica Marina 41: 565-569.
Morton S.L. & J.W. Bomber (1994) Maximizing okadaic acid content from Prorocentrum hoffmannianum Faust. - J. Appl. Phycol. 6: 41-44.
Morton S.L. & M.A. Faust (1997) Survey of toxic epiphytic dinoflagellates from the Belizean barrier reef ecosystem . – Bulletin of Marine Science 61: 899-906.
Morton S.L., M.A. Faust, E.A. Fairey & P.D.R. Moeller (2002) Morphology and toxicology of Prorocentrum arabianum sp. nov., (Dinophyceae) a toxic planktonic dinoflagellate from the Golf of Oman, Arabian Sea. – Harmful Algae 1(4): 393-400.
Morton S.L., P.D.R. Moeller, K.A. Young & B. Lanoue (1998) Okadaic production from the marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust isolated from the Belizean coral reef ecosystem. – Toxicon 36: 201-206.
Morton S.L., D.R. Norris & J.W. Bomber (1992) Effect of temperature, salinity, and light intensity on the growth of and seasonality of the toxic dinoflagellate associated with ciguatera. - Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 157: 79-90.
Morton S.L. & D.R. Tindall  (1995) Morphological and biochemical variability of the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima isolated from three locations at Heron Island, Australia. -  Joural of Pycology 31(6): 914-921.

Mouratidou T., I. Kaniou-Grigoriadou, C. Samara & T. Koumtzis (2004) Determination of okadaic acid and related toxins in Greek mussels by HPLC with fluorimetric detection. – Journal of liquid chromatography & related technologies 27(14): 2153-2166.

Mozetic P., M. Cabrini, S. Cok, R. Chiurco & A. Beran (1997) Temporal distribution of Alexandrium ssp. in the Gulf of Triese (Northern Adriatic). - ????? Annales 11/97: 225-230.

Mueller U. & R. Hardeland (1999) Methoxyindoles in Gonyaulax: Marked intracellular accumulations of exogenous 5-methoxytryptamine and N,N-dimethyl-5-methoxytrypt-amine, formation and release of 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid. Implications for previous interpretations. - In: Studies on Antioxidants and their Metabolites (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 148-161.
Mueller U. & R. Hardeland (1999) Photooxidative pyrrole-ring cleavage of melatonin: limits of quantification. - In: Studies on Antioxidants and their Metabolites (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 162-171.
Mueller U. & R. Hardeland (1999) Transient accumulations of exogenous melatonin indicate binding sites in the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra. - In: Studies on Antioxidants and their Metabolites (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 140-147.
Mueller U., R. Hardeland, B. Fuhrberg & B. Poeggeler (2000) Accumulation and  metabolism of 5-methoxylated indoleamines in the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra. - Eur. J. Cell. Biol. 79, Suppl. 50: 98.

Mühl W. & R. Hardeland (1994) Polyamines are not involved in the Gonyaulax circa-dian oscillator system. - In: Cell Biological Problems in Chronobiology (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 51-56.

Muller-Parker G., K.W. Lee & C.B. Cook (1996) Changes in the ultrastructure of symbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium sp., Dinophyceae) in fed and starved sea anemones maintained under high light and low light. - Journal of Phycology 32(6): 987-994.

Munday R., S. Murray, L.L. Rhodes, M.E. Larsson & D.T. Harwood (2017) Ciguatoxins and maitotoxins in extracts of sixteen Gambierdiscus isolates and one Fukuyoa isolate from the South Pacific and their toxicity to mice by intraperitoneal and oral administration. - Marine Drugs 15: 208; DOI:10.3390/md15070208 

Munir S., Z. Burhan, T. Naz & P.J.A. Siddiqui (2013) Morphotaxonomy and seasonal distribution of planktonic and benthic Prorocentrales in Karachi waters, Pakistan Northern Arabian Sea. - Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 31(2): 267-281.

Munoz P. & S.P. Avaria (1983) Estudio taxonómico de los dinoflagelados tecados de la Bahia de Valparaíso. I. Género Ceratium. – Rev. Biol. Mar. 17: 1-57.
Munoz P. & S.P. Avaria (1983) Scrippsiella trochoidea (Stein) Loeblich III, nuevo organismo causante de mar roja en la Bahia de Valparaiso, Chile. - Rev. Biol., Valparaíso 19: 63-78.
Munoz F., J. Herrera & R. Margalef  (1956) - Fitoplancton de las costas de Castellón durante el ano 1954. - Inv. Pesq. 3: 75-90, tables.   (fide Sournia 1973)

Murakami Y., Y. Oshima & T. Yasumoto (1982) Identification of okadaic-acid as a toxic component of a marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima. – Nippon Suisan Gakkasishi 48: 69-72.

Murata M., T. Iwashita, A. Yokoyama, M. Sasaki & T. Yasumoto (1992) Partial structure of maitotoxin, the most potent marine toxin from dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. - J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114: 6594-6594.

Murray J. (1876) Preliminary reports to Professor Wyville Thompson, F.R.S., Director of the civilian scientific staff, on work done on board the <<Challenger>>. Proc. r. Soc. London 24(170): 471-544, pls. 20-24.
Murray G. & F.G. Whitting (1899) New Peridiniaceae from the Atlantic. - Transactions of the Linnenan Society of London, Botany 5: 321-342, pls. 27-35.
Murray S., M. Flø Jørgensen & N. Daugbjerg (2004) Amphidinium revisited. II. Resolving species boundaries in the Amphidinium operculatum species complex (Dinophyceae), including the descriptions of Amphidinium trulla sp. nov.and Amphidinium gibbosum comb. nov.. – Journal of Phycology 40(2): 366-382.
Murray S., M. Flø Jørgensen, S.Y.W. Ho, D.J. Patterson & L.S. Jerimiin (2005) Improving the analysis of dinoflagellate phylogeny based on rDNA. – Protist 156: 269-286.
Murray S., T. Garby, M. Hoppenrath & B.A. Neilan (2012) Genetic diversity, morphological uniformity and polyketide production in dinoflagellates (Amphidinium, Dinoflagellata). - PLoS ONE 7(6): e38253.
Murray S., M. Hoppenrath, J. Larsen & D.J. Patterson (2006) Bysmatrum teres sp. nov., a new sand-dwelling dinoflagellate from north-western Australia. – Phycologia 45(2): 161-167.
Murray S., M. Hoppenrath, A. Preisfeld. J. Larsen, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Toriumi & D.J. Patterson (2006) Phylogenietics of Rhinodinium broomeense gen & sp. nov., a peridinoid sand-dwelling dinoflagellate (Dinophyceae). – Journal of Phycology 42(4): 934-942.
Murray S., C.L.-C. Ip, R. Moore, Y. Nagama & Y. Fukuyo (2009) Are prorocentroid dinoflagellates monophyletic? A study of 25 species based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes. - Protist 160: 245-264.
Murray S., Y. Nagama & Y. Fukuyo (2007) Phylogenetic study of benthic, spine-bearing prorocentroids, including Prorocentrum fukuyoi sp. nov. – Phycolgical Research 55: 91-102.
Murray S., P. Momigliano, K. Heimann & D. Blair (2014) Molecular phylogenetics and morphology of Gambierdiscus yasumotoi from tropical eastern Australia. - Harmful Algae 39: 242-252. 
Murray S. & D.J. Patterson (2002a) The benthic dinoflagellate genus Amphidinium in south-eastern Australian waters, including three new species. - European Journal of Phycology 37 : 279-298.
Murray S. & D.J. Patterson (2002b) Amphidiniopsis korawelensis sp. nov., a new heterotrophic benthic dinoflagellate. – Phycologia 41(4): 382-388.
Murray S. & D.J. Patterson (2004) Cabra matta, gen. nov., sp. nov., a new benthic, heterotrophic dinoflagellate. – European Journal of Phycology 39(2): 229-234.
Murray S. & I.M. Suthers (1999) Population ecology of Noctiluca scintillans McCartney, a red tide forming dinoflagellate. - Marine and Freshwater Research 50(3): 243-252.