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last update: 14 November 2018

 

Labbé A. (1924) Introduction a l’étude des milieux marins hyperalcalins. Troisième partie. La faune d’un marais salant du Croisic. – Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Génerale 62: 463-478.

Labry C., E. Erard–Le Denn, A. Chapelle, J. Fauchot, A. Youenou, M.P. Crassous, J. Le Grand & B. Lorgeoux (2008) Competition for phosphorus between two dinoflagellates: A toxic Alexandrium minutum and a non-toxic Heterocapsa triquetra. - Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 358(2): 124-135.

Lackey J.B. (1936) Some fresh water protozoa with blue chromatophores. - Biol. Bull. 71: 492-497.

Lafay B., R. Ruimy, C. Rausch de Traubenberg, V. Breittmayer, M.J. Gauthier & R. Christen (1995) Roseobacter algicola sp. nov., a new marine bacterium isolated from the phycosphere of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima. - Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45(2): 290-296.

LaJeunesse T.C. & R.K. Trench (2000) Biogeography of two species of Symbiodinium (Freudenthal) inhabiting the intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Brandt). - Biologcal Bulletin 199(2): 126-134.
LaJeunesse T.C. (2001) Investigating the biodiversity, ecology and phylogeny of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium using the IST region: in search of a „species“ level marker. - Journal of Phycology 37(5): 866-880.
LaJeunesse T.C. & D.J. Thornhill (2011) Improved resolution of reef-coral endosymbiont (Symbiodinium) species diversity, ecology, and evolution through psbA non-coding region genotyping. - PLoS ONE 6(2): e29013.
LaJeunesse T.C., J.E. Parkinson & J.D. Reimer (2012) A genetic based description of Symbiodinium minutum sp. nov. and S. psygmophilum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), two dinoflagellates symbiotic with cnidaria. - Journal of Phycology 48(6): 1380-1391.
LaJeunesse T.C., D.C. Wham, D.T. Pettay, J.E. Parkinson, S. Keshavmurthy & C.A. Chen (2014) Ecologically differentiated stress-tolerant endosymbionts in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) Clade D are different species. - Phycologia 53(4): 305-319.
LaJeunesse T.C., S.Y. Lee, D.L. Gil-Agudelo, N. Knowlton & H.J. Jeong (2015) Symbiodinium necroappetens sp. nov. (Dinophyceae): an opportunist 'zooxanthella' found in bleached and diseased tissues of Caribbean reef corals. - European Journal of Phycology 50: 223-238. 

LaJeunesse T.C. (2017) Validation and description of Symbiodinium microadriaticum, the type species of Symbiodinium (Dinophyta). - Journal of Phycology 53: 1109-1114.


Lakkis S. & V.N. Lakkis (1980) Composition, annual cycle and species diversity of the phytoplankton in Lebanese coastal waters. – Journal of Plankton Research 3: 123-136.

Lam C.M.C., D.C. New & J.T.Y. Wong (2001) cAMP in the cell cycle of the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii (Dinophyta). - Journal of Pohycology 37(1): 79-85.
Lam C.W.Y., Kodama, M. Chan, D.K.O., Ogata, T., Sato, S. & Ho, K.C. (1989) Paralytic shellfish toxicity in Hong Kong. In: Okaichi,T., Anderson, D.M., Nemoto, T. (eds) Red Tides. Biology, Environmental Science and Toxicology. Elsevier Science Publishing B.V. pp. 455-458. 

Lamarck J.B. de (1816) Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertèbres. II. Verdière, Paris, 568 pp.

Landsberg J.H. (2002) The effects of harmful algal blooms on aquatic organisms. – Reviews in Fisheries Science 10(2): 113-390.
Landsberg J.H., L.J. Flewelling & J. Naar (2009) Karenia brevis red tides, brevetoxins in the food web, and impacts on natural resources: Decadal advancements. - Harmful Algae 8(4): 598-607.
Landsberg H.J., K.A. Steidinger & B.A. Blakesley (1995) Fish-killing dinoflagellates in a tropical marine aquarium. - In: Lassus et al. 1995 (eds) Harmful marine algal blooms, Lavoisier, Paris pp. 65-70.

Langhans V.H. (1925) Gemischte Populationen von Ceratium hirundinella (O.F. Müller) Schrank und ihre Deutung. -  Archiv für Protistenkunde 52: 585-602.

Larsen J.
(1985) Algal Studies of the Danish Waddensea II. A taxonomic study of psammobious dinoflagellates. - Opera Botanica 79: 14-37.
Larsen J. (1988) An ultrastructural study of Amphidinium poecilichroum (Dinophyceae), a phagotrophic dinoflagellate feeding on small species of cryptophytes. - Phycologia 27(3): 366-377.
Larsen J. (1994) Unarmoured dinoflagellates from Australian waters I. The genus Gymnodinium (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae). - Phycologia 33(1): 24-33.
Larsen J. (1996) Unarmoured dinoflagellates from Australian waters II. The genus Gyrodinium (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae). - Phycologia 35(41): 342-349.  
Larsen J., H. Kuosa, J. Ilkävalko, K. Kivi & S. Hällfors (1995) A redescription of Scrippsiella hangoei (Schiller) comb. nov. – a’red tide’ dinoflagellate from the northern Baltic. – Phycologia 34(2): 135-144. 
Larsen J. & Ø. Moestrup (1992) Potentially toxic Phytoplankton 2. Genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae). ICES Identification Leaflets for Plankton 10: 1-12.
Larsen J. & N.L. Nguyen (Eds) : Potentially toxic microalgae of Vietnamese waters. – Opera Botanica 140: 1-216.
Larsen J. & D.J. Patterson (1990) Some flagellates (Protista) from tropical marine sediments. - J. Nat. History 24: 801-937.

Lassus P. & C. Marcaillou-Baut (1995) Dinophysis acuminata (Dinophyceae), une espèce a géométrie variable sur les côtes francaises. - Cryptogamie, Algologie 16(3): 167-172.

Latz M.I., M.R. Bowlby & J.F. Case (1991) Bioluminescence of the solitaryy spumellarian radiolarian, Thalassicolla nucleata (Huxley). – Journal of Plankton Research 13: 1187-1201.

Laurion I. & S. Roy (2009) Growth and photoprotection in three dinoflagellates (including two strains of Alexandrium tamarense) and one diatom exposed to four weeks of natural and enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation. - Journal of Phycology 45(1): 16-33.

Lauterborn R. (1894) Über die Winterfauna einiger Gewässer der Oberrheinebene. Mit Beschreibung neuer Protozoen. - Biologisches Centralblatt 14: 390-398.
Lauterborn R. (1896) Diagnose neuer Protozoen aus dem Gebiete des Oberrheins. -Zoologischer Anzeiger 19(493-520): 14-18.
Lauterborn R. (1899) Protozoen-Studien. IV. Theil. Flagellaten aus dem Gebiet des Oberrheins. - Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie 65: 369-391, pls. 17+18.

Lawler A.R. (1967) Oodinium cyprinidontum n. sp., a parasitic dinoflagellate on gills of Cyprinodontidae`of Virginia. - Chesapeake Sci. 8: 67-68.
Lawler A.R. (1980) Studies on Amyloodinium ocellatum (Dinoflagellata) in Mississippi Sound: Natural and experimental hosts. - Gulf Res. Rep. 6: 403-413.

Lawrence S.A., W.H. Wilson, J.E. Davy & S.K. Davy (2014) Latent virus-like infections are present in a diverse range of Symbiodinium spp. (Dinophyta). - Journal of Phycology 50(6): 984-997.

Laza-Martinez A., E. Orive & I. Miguel (2011) Morphological and genetic characterization of benthic dinoflagellates of the genera Coolia, Ostreopsis and Prorocentrum from the south-eastern Bay of Biscay. - European Journal of Phycology 46: 45-65.
Laza-Martinez A., H. David, P. Riobó I. Miguel & E. Orive (2016) Characterization of a strain of Fukuyoa paulensis (Dinophyceae) from the western Mediterranean Sea. - The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 63: 481-497. 

Leadbeater B. & J.D. Dodge (1966) The fine structure of Woloszynskia micra sp.nov., a new marine dinoflagellate. - British phycological Bulletin 3(1): 1-17.

Leaw C.P.
, P.T. Lim, B.K. Ng, M.Y. Chea, A. Ahmad & G. Usup (2005) Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. – Phycologia 44(5): 550-565.
Leaw C.P., P.T. Lim, K.W. Cheng, B.K. Ng & G. Usup (2010) Morphology and molecular characterization of a new species of thecate benthic dinoglagellate, Coolia malayensis sp. nov. (Dinophyceae). - Journal of Phycology 46: 162-171.
Leaw C.P., P.T. Lim,T.H. Tan, T.N. Tuan-Halim, K.W. Cheng, B.K. Ng & G. Usup (2011) First report of the benthic dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus belizeanus (Gonyaulacales: Dinophyceae) for the east coast of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. - Phycol. Res. 59(3): 143-146.

Leblond J.D.
& P.J. Chapman (2000) Lipid class distribution of highly unsaturated long chain fatty acids in marine dinoflagellates. – Journal of Phycology 36(6): 1103-1108.
Leblond J.D. & P.J. Chapman (2001) An unusual polyunsaturated C-27 hydrocarbon from the marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula. - Journal of Phycology 37(3) Suppl.: 29 (abstract only).
Leblond J.D. & P.J. Chapman (2002) Fatty acid and sterol composition of a Karenia brevis bloom in the Gulf of Mexico. – Journal of Phycology 38(1): 21.
Leblond J.D. & P.J. Chapman (2002) A survey of the sterol composition of the marine dinoflagellates Karenia brevis, Karenia mikimotoi, and Karlodinium micrum: distribution of sterols within other members of the class Dinophyceae. – Journal of Phycology 38(4): 670-682.
Leblond J.D. & J.L. Dahmen (2012) Mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycol composition of dinoflagellates. V. The galactolipid profile of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) during the course of infection by the parasitic syndinian dinoflagellate Amoebophrya sp. - European Journal of Phycology 47(4): 490-497. 
Leblond J.D., J.L. Dahmen &T.J. Evens (2010) Mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol composition of dinoflagellates. IV. Temperature-induced modulation of fatty acid regiochemistry as observed by electrospray ionization / mass spectrometry. - European Journal of Phycology 45(1) 13-18.
Leblond J.D., J. Dodson & J.L. Dahmen (2013) Mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol composition of dinoflagellates. VII. Evidence against galactolipid production and plastid presence in the heterotrophic, basal dinoflagellate, Oxyrrhis marina. - European Journal of Phycology 48(3): 309-317. 
Leblond J.D., T.J. Evens & P.J. Chapman (2003) The biochemistry of dinoflagellate lipids, with particular reference to fatty acid and sterol composition of a Karenia brevis bloom. – Phycologica 42(4): 324-331.
Leblond J.D. & A.D. Lasiter (2009) Mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol composition of dinoflagellates. II. Lepidodinium chlorophorum, Karenia brevis, and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum, three dinoflagellates with aberrant plastids. - European Journal of Phycology 44(2): 199-205.
Leblond J.D. & A.D. Lasiter (2012) Sterols of the green-pigmented, aberrant plastid dinoflagellate, Lepidodinium chlorophorum (Dinophyceae). - Protist 163: 38-46.
Leblond J.D., M.R. Sengco, J.O. Sickman, J.L. Dahmen & D.M. Anderson (2006) Sterols of the syndinian dinoflagellate Amoebophrya sp., a parasite of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae). – The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 53(3): 211-216.

Lebour M.V. (1917) The Peridiniales of Plymouth Sound from the region beyond the Breakwater. - Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 11: 183-200.
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Lebour M.V. (1923) Plymouth Peridinians. IV. The plate arrangement of some Peridinium species. - Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 13(1): 266-270.
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Lee F.W.-F.
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Lee R.E. (1977) Saprophytic and phagocytic isolates of the colorless heterotrophic dinoflagellate Gyrodinium lebouriae Herdman. - Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 57: 303-315.
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Lee S.Y., H.J. Jeong, N.S. Kang, T.Y. Jang, S.H. Jang & T.C. LaJeunesse (2015) Symbiodinium tridacnidorum sp. nov., a dinoflagellate common in Indo-Pacific giant clams, and a revised morphological description of Symbiodinium microadriaticum Freudenthal, emended Trench & Blank. - European Journal of Phycology 50: 155-172.
Lee Y.-W., G. Kim, W.-A. Lim & D.-W. Hwang (2010) A relationship between submarine groundwater borne nutrients traced by Ra isotopes and the intensity of dinoflagellate red-tides occurring in the southern sea of Korea. - Limnology and Oceanography 55(1): 1-10

Lefèvre M.
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Lefèvre M. (1932) Monographie des espèces du genre Peridinium. - Arch. Botanique 2(5): 1-210 + pls. 1-6.

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Leitao P.M.
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Lenaers G., L. Maroteaux, B. Michot & M. Herzog. (1989) Dinoflagellates in evolution. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of large subunit ribosomal RNA. - J. mol. Evol. 29: 40-51.
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Lepelletier F., S.A. Karpov, S. Le Panse, E. Bigeard, A. Skovgaard, C. Jeanthon & L. Guillou (2014) Parvilucifera rostrata sp. nov. (Perkinsozoa), a novel parasitoid that infects planctonic dinoflagellates. - Protist 165(1): 31-49.
Lepelletier F., S.A. Karpov, E. Alacid, S. Le Panse, E. Bigeard, E. Garcés, C. Jeanthon & L. Guillou (2014) Dinomyces arenysensis gen. et sp. nov. (Rhizophydiales, Dinomycetaceae fam. nov.), a chytrid infecting marine dinoflagellates. - Protist 165(2): 230-244. 

Leppänen J.-H., E. Rantajärvi, S. Hällfors, M. Kruskopf and V. Laine (1995) Unatended monitoring of potentially toxic phytoplankton species in the Baltic Sea in 1993. – Journal of Plankton Research 17: 891-902.

LeTortorec A.H., P. Tahvanainen, A. Kremp & S.G.H. Simis (2016) Diversity of luciferase sequences and bioluminescence production in the Baltic Sea Alexandrium ostenfeldii. - European Journal of Phycology 51(3): 317-327.

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Levander K.M. (1894) Materialien zur Kenntnis der Wasserfauna in der Umgebung von Helsingfors, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Meeresfauna I. Protozoa. - Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 12: 1-115 + 3 pls.

Levandowsky M.
& P.J. Kaneta (1987) Behaviour in dinoflagellates. - Bot. Monogr. 21: 361-397.

Levin E.D. (2001) A rat model of the cognitive impairment from Pfiesteria piscicida exposure. - Environmental Health Perspectives 109 (Suppl. 5): 757-763.

Levin-Edward D.A., E. Schmechel-Donald, J.M. Burkholder, H.B. Jr. Glasgow, M.-N.J. Deamer, V.C. Moser & G.J. Harry (1997) Persisting learning deficits in rats after exposure to Pfiesteria piscicida. - Environmental-Health-Perspectives. Dec., 1997; 105(12): 1320 ff.


Lewis J., J.D. Dodge & P. Tett (1984) Cyst-theca relationships in some Protoperidinium species (Peridiniales) from Scottish sea lochs. -Journal of Micropaleaentology 3(2): 25-34.

Lewis J., P. Tett & J.D. Dodge (1985) The cyst-theca cycle of Gonyaulax polyedra (Lingulodinium machaerophorum) in Cerran, a Scottish west-coast sea-loch. - In: Toxic Dinoflagellates (Eds: D.M. Anderson, A.W. White & D.G. Baden) Elsevier, New York, Amsterdam, Oxford; pp. 85-90.

Lewis J. (1988) Cysts and sediments: Gonyaulax polyedra (Lingulodinium machaerophorum) in Loch Creran. - Journal of the Marine Biological Association U.K. 68: 701-714.

Lewis J. & P. Burton (1988) A study of newly excysted cells of Gonyaulax polyedra (Dinophyceae) by electron microscopy. - British phycological Journal 23: 49-60.

Lewis J. (1990) The cyst-theca relationship of Oblea rotunda (Diplopsalidaceae, Dinophyceae). - British phycolological Journal 25: 339-351.

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Lewis J. & R. Hallet (1997) Lingulodinium polyedrum (Gonyaulax polyedra) a blooming dinoflagellate. – In: A.D. Ansell, R.N. Gibson & M. Barnes (Eds) Oceanography and Marine biology: an Annual Review. 35: 97-161.
Lewis J., A.S.D. Harris, K.J. Jones & R.L. Edmonds (1999)  Long-term survival of marine planktonic diatoms and dinoflagellates in stored sediment samples. - Journal of Plankton Research 21: 343-354.
Lewis J., G. Kennaway, S. Franca & E. Alverca (2001) Bacterium-dinoflagellate interactions: investigative microscopy of Alexandrium spp. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). - Phycologia 40(3): 280-285.
Lewis J., A. Rochon, M. Ellegaard, P.J. Mudie & I. Harding (2001) The cyst-theca relationship of Bitectatodinium tepikiense (Dinophyta). - European Journal of Phycology 36: 137-146.
Lewis J., J.D. Taylor, K. Neale & S.A.G. Leroy (2018) Expanding known dinoflagellate distributions: investigations of slurry cultures from Caspian Sea sediment. - Botanica Marina 61(1): 21-31.
Lewis N.I., W. Xu, S.K. Jericho, H.J. Kreuzer, M.H. Jericho & A.D. Cembella (2006) Swimming speed of three species of Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) as determined by digital in-line holography. – Phycologia 45(1): 61-70.
Lewis R.A. & M.J. Holmes (1993) Origin and transfer of toxins involved in ciguatera. – Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C 106(3): 615-628.

Lewitus A.J.
, H.B.Jr. Glasgow & J.M. Burkholder (1999) Kleptoplastidy in the toxic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscidida (Dinophyceae). – Journal of Phycology 35: 303-312.
Lewitus A.J., R.V. Jesien, T.M. Kana, J.M. Burkholder, H.B. Glasgow Jr. & E. May (1995) Discovery of the „Phantom“ dinoflagellate in Chesapeake Bay. - Estuaries 18(2): 373-378. 
Lewitus A.J., M.S. Wetz, B.M. Willis, J.M. Burckholder, M.W. Parrow & H.B. Glasgow (2006) Grazing activity of Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae) and susceptility to ciliate predation vary with toxicity status. – Harmful Algae 5(2): 427-434.

Li A., D.K. Stoecker & J.E. Adolf (1999) Feeding, pigmentation, photosynthesis and growth of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Gyrodinium galatheanum. - Aquatic Microbial Ecology 19: 163-176.
Li A., D.K. Stoecker & D.W. Coats (2000a) Mixotrophy in Gyrodinium galatheanum (Dinophyceae): grazing responses to light intensity and inorganic nutrients. - Journal of Phycology 36: 33-45.
Li A., D.K. Stoecker & D.W. Coats (2000b) Spatial and temporal aspects of Gyrodinium galatheanum in Chesapeake Bay: distribution and mixotrophy. - Journal of Plankton Research 22: 2105-2124.
Li H., J. Miao, F. Cui & G. Li (2008) Surfactant promotion of the inhibitory effects of cupric glutamate on the dinoflagellate Alexandrium. - Journal of Phycology 44(6): 1364-1371.
Li J. (1985) On the nucleoli of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum. - Hydrobiologia 124: 45-48.
Li Y., E. Swift & E.J. Buskey (1996) Photoinhibition of mechanically stimulable bioluminescernce in the heterotrophioc dinoflagellate Protoperidinium depressum (Pyrrhophyta). - Journal of Phycology 32(6) : 974-982.
Li Y., I. Sunila & G.H. Wikfors (2012) Bioactive effects of Prorocentrum minimum on juvenile bay scallops (Argopecten irradians) are dependent upon algal physiological status. - Botanica Marina 55(1): 19-29.
Li Z., H.H. Shin & M-S. Han (2015) Morphology and phylogeny of a new woloszynskioid dinoflagellate Tovellia paldangensis sp. nov. (Dinophyceae). - Phycologia 54(1): 67-77.
Li Z., K. Matsuoka, H.H. Shin, S. Kobayashi, K. Shin, T. Lee & M-S. Han (2015) Brigantedinium majusculum is the cyst of Protoperidinium sinuosum (Protoperidiniaceae, Dinophyceae). - Phycologia 54(5): 517-529.
Li Z., M-S. Han, K. Matsuoka, S.Y. Kim & H.H. Shin (2015) Identification of the resting cyst of Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef (Dinophyceae, Gymnodiniales) in Korean coastal sediments. - Journal of Phycology 51(1): 204-210.
Li Z., H.H. Shin, W.-A. Lim, T. Lee, Y.H. Yoon & M.-S. Han (2015) Morphology and phylogeny of Pentapharsodinium jinhaense sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) producing a calcareous resting cyst. - Phycologia 54(6): 566-577.
Li Z., S.J. Oh, J.-W. Park, W.-A. Lim & H.H. Shin (2017) Cyst-motile stage relationship, morphology and phylogeny of a new chain-forming, marine dinoflagellate Grammatodinium tongyeonginum gen. & sp. nov. from Korea. - Phycologia 56(4): 430-443. 

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Luo Z., B. Krock, K.N. Mertens,E. Nézan, N. Chomérat, G. Bilien, U. Tillmann & H. Gu (2017) Adding new pieces to the Azadinium (Dinophyceae) diversity and biogeography puzzle: Non-toxigenic Azadinium zhuanum sp. nov. from China, toxigenic A. poporum from Mediterranean, and a non-toxigenic A. dalianense from the French Atlantic. - Harmful Algae 66: 65-78.

Luo Z., L. Wang, L. Chan, S. Lu & H. Gu (2018) Karlodinium zhouanum, a new dinoflagellate species from China, and molecular phylogeny of Karenia digitata and Karenia longicanalis (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae). - Phycologia 57(4): 401-412.


Lyczkowski F.R. & L. Karp-Boss (2014) Allelopathic effects of Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) on Thalassiosira cf. gravida (Bacillariophyceae): a matter of size. - Journal of Phycology 50(2): 376-387.