last update: 13 July 2018


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Han M.S., P. Wang, J.H. Kim, S.Y. Cho, B.S. Park, J.H. Kim, T. Katano & B.H. Kim (2016) Morphological and molecular phylogenetic position of Prorocentrum micans sensu stricto and description of Prorocentrum koreanum sp. nov. from South coastal waters in Korea and Japan. - Protist 167(1): 32-50.

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Hansen G. (1989) Ultrastructure and morphogenesis of scales in Katodinium rotundatum (Lohmann) Loebl. (Dinophyceae). - Phycologia 28(3): 385-394.

Hansen G. & J. Larsen (1992) Dinoflagellater i danske farvande. p. 45-155. In: H.A. Thomsen (Ed.) Plankton i de indre danske farvande. - Havforskning fra Miljøstyrelsen. 11: 331 pp.

Hansen G. (1993) Light and electron microscopical observations of the dinoflagellate Actiniscus pentasterias (Dinophyceae). – Journal of Phycology 29(4): 486-499.
Hansen G. (1995) Analysis of the thecal plate pattern in the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa rotundata (Lohmann) comb. nov. (= Katodinium rotundatum (Lohmann) Loeblich). - Phycologia 34(2): 166-170.

Hansen G., Ø. Moestrup & K.R. Roberts (1996) Fine structural observations on Gonyaulax spinifera (Dinophyceae), with special emphasis on the flagellar apparatus. - Phycologia 35(4): 354-366.

Hansen G. & Ø. Moestrup (1998) Fine structural characterization of Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) with special emphasis on the flagellar apparatus. - European Journal of Phycology 33: 281-291.
Hansen G. & Ø. Moestrup (1998) Light and electron microscopical observations on Peridiniella catenata (Dinophyceae). - European Journal of Phycology 33: 293-305.

Hansen G., N. Daugbjerg & P. Henriksen (2000) Comparative study of Gymnodinium mikimotoi and Gymnodinium aureolum, comb. nov. (= Gyrodinium aureolum) based on morphology, pigment composition, and molecular data. - Journal of Phycology 36(2): 394-410.

Hansen G., Ø. Moestrup & K.R. Roberts (2000) Light and electron microscopical observations on the type species of Gymnodinium, G. fuscum (Dinophyceae). – Phycologia 39: 365-376.

Hansen G. (2001) Ultrastructure of Gyrodinium aureolum (Dinophyceae): towards a further redefinition of Gymnodinium sensu stricto. – Journal of Phycology 37(4): 612-623.

Hansen G., N. Daugbjerg & J.M. Franco (2003) Morphology, toxin composition and LSU rDNA phylogeny of Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) from Denmark, with some morphological observations on other European strains. Harmful Algae 2: 317-335.

Hansen G. & N. Djauberg (2004) Ultrastructure of Gyrodinium spirale, the type species of Gyrodinium (Dinophyceae), including a phylogeny of G. dominans, G. rubrum and G. spirale deduced from partial LSU rDNA sequences. – Protist 155(3): 271-294.

Hansen G. & Ø. Moestrup (2005) Flagellar apparatus and nuclear chambers of the green dinoflagellate Gymnodinium chlorophorum. – Phycological Research 53: 169-181.

Hansen G., L. Botes & M. de Salas (2007) Ultrastructure and large subunit rDNA sequences of Lepidodinium viride reveal a close relationship to Lepidodinium chlorophorum comb. nov. (= Gymnodinium chlorophorum). - Phycological Research 55: 25-41.

Hansen G., N. Daugbjerg & P. Hendriksen (2007) Baldinia anauniensis gen. et  sp. nov.: a ‘new’ dinoflagellate from Lake Tovel, N. Italy. – Phycologia 46(1): 86-108.   
Hansen G. & G. Flaim (2007) Dinoflagellates of the Trentino Province, Italy. - Journal of Limnology 66(2): 107-141.
Hansen G. & N. Daugbjerg (2009) Symbiodinium natans sp. nov.: A "free-living" Dinoflagellate from Tenerife (Northeast-Atlantic Ocean). - Journal of Phycology 45(1): 251-263.
Hansen G. & N. Daugbjerg (2011) Moestrupia oblonga gen. & comb. nov. (syn.: Gyrodinium oblongum), a new marine dinoflagellate genus characterized by light and electron microscopy, photosynthetic pigments and LSU rDNA sequence. - Phycologia 50(6): 583-599.

Hansen G., N. Daugbjerg & Ø. Moestrup (2018) The rainwater rock-pool dinoflagellate Nottbeckia ochracea gen. et comb. nov. (syn.: Hemidinium ochraceum) - a fine-structural and molecular study with emphasis on the motile stage. - Protist 169(2): 280-306.

Hansen P.J. (1989) The red tide dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense: effects on behaviour and growth of a tintinnid ciliate. - Marine Ecology Progress Series 53: 105-116.
Hansen P.J.
(1991a) Dinophysis - a planktonic dinoflagellate genus which can act both as prey and predator of a ciliate. - Marine Ecology Progress Series 69: 201-204.
Hansen P.J. (1991b) Quantitative importance and trophic role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in a coastal pelagial food web. -
Marine Ecology Progress Series 73: 253-261.
Hansen P.J. (1992) Particle size selection, feeding rates and growth dynamics of heterotrophic dinoflagellates with special emphasis on Gyrodinium spirale. – Marine Biology 114: 327-334.
Hansen P.J. (1995) Growth and grazing response of a ciliate feeding on the red tide dinoflagellate Gyrodinium aureolum in monoculture and in mixture with a non-toxic alga. - Marine Ecology Progress Series 121: 65-72.
Hansen P.J. (1998) Phagotrophic mechanisms and prey selection in mixotrophic phytoflagellates. - In: Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms (D.M. Anderson, A.D. Cembella & G.M. Hallegraeff Eds) - Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 525-537.
Hansen P.J. (2011) The role of photosynthesis and food uptake for growth of marine mixotrophic dinoflagellates. - J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 58(3): 203-214.
Hansen P.J. & A.J. Calado (1999) Phagotrophic mechanisms and prey selection in free-living dinoflagellates. – Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 46: 382-389.
Hansen P.J. & T.G. Nielsen (1997) Mixotrophic feeding of Fragilidium subglobosum (Dinophyceae) on three species of Ceratium: effects of prey concentration, prey species and light intensity. – Marine Ecology Progress Series 147: 187-196.
Hansen P.J., P.K. Bjørnesn & B.W. Hansen (1997) Zooplankton grazing and growth: scaling within the 2-2,000µm body size range. – Limnology and Oceanography 42: 687-704.
Hansen P.J., A.D. Cembella & Ø. Moestrup (1992) The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii: paralytic shellfish toxin concentration, composition and toxicity to a ciliate. - Journal of Phycology 28: 597-603.
Hansen P.J., N. Lundholm & B. Rost  (2007) Growth limitation in marine red-tide dinoflagellates: effects of pH versus inorganic carbon availability. - Marine Ecology Progress Series 334: 63-71.
Hansen P.J., L. Miranda & R. Anzanza (2004) Green Noctiluca scintillans: a dinoflagellate with its own greenhouse. – Marine Ecology Progress Series 275: 79-87.
Hansen P.J., A. Skovgaard, R.N. Glud & D.K. Stoecker (2000) Physiology of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Fragilidium subglobosum. II. Effects of time scale and prey concentration on photosynthetic performance. - Marine Ecology Progress Series. 201: 137-146.
Hansen P.J., T.G. Nielsen, M. Johnson, T. Berge & K.J. Flynn (2013) Acquired phototrophy in Mesodinium and Dinophysis - a review of cellular organization, prey selectivity, nutrient uptake and bioenergetics. - Harmful Algae 28: 126-139. 

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Hardeland R.
(1980) Effects of catecholamines on bioluminescence in Gonyaulax polyedra (Dinoflagellata). - Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 66C: 53-58.
Hardeland R. (1980) The search for the cellular circadian oscillator: are the membranes already out of date? - J. Interdiscipl. Cycle Res. 11: 235-237.
Hardeland R. (1982) Circadian rhythms of bioluminescence in two species of Pyrocystis (Dinophyta). Measurements in cell populations and in single cells. - J. Interdiscipl. Cycle Res. 13: 49-54.
Hardeland R. (1993) The presence and function of  melatonin and structurally related indoleamines in a dinoflagellate, and a hypothesis on the evolutionary significance of these tryptophan metabolites in unicellulars. - Experientia 49: 614-622.
Hardeland R. (1994) Decrease of intracellular pH after exposure of Gonyaulax to cyst-inducing concentrations of 5-methoxytryptamine or epinephrine. - In: Cell Biological Problems in Chronobiology (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 110-115.
Hardeland R. (1994) Induction of cyst formation by low temperature in the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra Stein: dependence on circadian phase and requirement of light. - Experientia 50: 60-62.
Hardeland R. (1994) Species differences in the responsiveness of dinoflagellates to a 5-methoxylated indoleamine. In contrast to Gonyaulax polyedra, Amphidinium carterae does not encyst at rearing temperature upon exposure to 5-methoxytryptamine. - In: Cell Biological Problems in Chronobiology (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 134-135.
Hardeland R. (1994) Time patterns of spontaneous and stimulated bioluminescence in Ceratium fusus. - In: Cell Biological Problems in Chronobiology (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 47-50.
Hardeland R. (1995) Circadian rhythm of plastid movements in Pyrocystis acuta. - In: Cellular Rhythms and Indoleamines (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 106-110.
Hardeland R. (1995) Formation of asexual cysts in Alexandrium lusitanicum in response to 5-methoxytryptamine or melatonin. - In: Cellular Rhythms and Indoleamines (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 81-84.
Hardeland R. (1995) Photooxidation of 5-methoxyindoles is catalysed by Gonyaulax extracts in DMSO. - In: Cellular Rhythms and Indoleamines (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 123-128.
Hardeland R. (1995) Photooxidation of serotonin in DMSO: Photocatalytic capacity of Gonyaulax extract. - In: Cellular Rhythms and Indoleamines (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 128-131.
Hardeland R. (1995) Species differences in the responsiveness of dinoflagellates to 5-methoxylated indoleamines: Ceratium horridum does not encyst in response to melatonin or 5-methoxytryptamine. - In: Cellular Rhythms and Indoleamines (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 85-87.
Hardeland R. (1996) Effects of 5-methoxytryptamine on bioluminescence and cytoplasmic acidification in Alexandrium tamarense. - In: Metabolism and Cellular Dynamics of Indoles (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 103-106.
Hardeland R. (1996) Effects of 5-methoxytryptamine on resting and motility in various dinoflagellates. - In: Metabolism and Cellular Dynamics of Indoles (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 100-102.
Hardeland R. (1996) Induction of asexual cysts in dinoflagellates: Slow responders to 5-methoxytryptamine are slow cytoplasmic acidifiers. - In: Metabolism and Cellular Dynamics of Indoles (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 107-109.
Hardeland R. (1997) The circadian rhythm of aryl acylamidase in Gonyaulax polyedra: Persistence in constant darkness. - In: Biological Rhythms and Antioxidative Protection (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 103-106.
Hardeland R. (1999) Melatonin and 5-methoxytryptamine in non-metazoans. - Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 39: 399-408.
Hardeland R. (2000): Biolumineszenz – Naturphänomen und Grundlage moderner Werkzeuge. - BIOspektrum 6: 223-226.
Hardeland R. (2005) Melatonin, eine ubiquitäre Substanz. Vorkommen, Wirkungen und Metabolismus außerhalb seiner klassischen Rolle. - Abh. Sächs. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Nat. Kl., Bd. 63, Heft 2 „Endokrinologie II“ (E. Peschke, ed.), Verl. Sächs. Akad. Wiss./Hirzel, Stuttgart – Leipzig, pp. 75-106.
Hardeland R. (2006) Melatonina en unicelulares y su impacto en la investigación biomédica.  - In: Cronobiología Básica y Clínica (J.A. Madrid & M.A. Rol de Lama, eds.), Editec@Red, Madrid, pp. 570-571.
Hardeland R. (2006) Ritmos circadianos, estrés oxidativo y mecanismos de defensa antioxidante. - In: Cronobiología Básica y Clínica (J.A. Madrid & M.A. Rol de Lama, eds.), Editec@Red, Madrid, pp. 555-572.
Hardeland R. (2008) Melatonin and other tryptophan metabolites: Rhythms outside the animal world and some novel, presumably universal pathways. - In: Comparative Aspects of Circadian Rhythms (M.L. Fanjul-Moles & R. Aguilar-Roblero, eds.), Transworld Research Network, Trivandrum, pp. 1-17.
Hardeland R. & I. Balzer (1993) Chronobiology of unicells: Multiplicity of frequencies, non-oscillatory states, photoperiodism and effects of biogenic amines. - Trends Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1: 71-87.
Hardeland R. & I. Balzer (1993) Chronobiological organization of the marine dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra (Gonyaulacaceae): Periodicity as a cyclic expression of phenotypical characteristics and responses to changes in temperature and photoperiod. - In: Quantified Phenotypic Responses in Morphology and Physiology (J.C. Aldrich, ed.), JAPAGA, Ashford pp. 115-120.
Hardeland R. & I. Balzer (1993) Influences of temperature on circadian and ultradian rhythms. - In: Rythmes Biologiques: de la Cellule à l'Homme (J. Beau & J.-F. Vibert, eds.), Polytechnica, Paris pp. 19-28.
Hardeland R. & G. Behrmann (1994) The circadian oscillator system and photoperiodic time measurement in Gonyaulax polyedra: oscillatory behaviour as a permissive condition or as an aspect of a time-measuring device? - In: Cell Biological Problems in Chronobiology (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 153-157.
Hardeland R. & S. Burkhardt (1997) On the restoration of the Gonyaulax glow peak following suppression of indoleamine biosynthesis by inhibitors of tryptophan hydroxylase: An update. - In: Biological Rhythms and Antioxidative Protection (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 78-85.
Hardeland R. & A. Coto-Montes (2000) Chronobiology of oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defense mechanisms. - In: Recent Research Developments in Comparative Bio-chemistry and Physiology, Vol. 1 (S.G. Pandalai, ed.), Transworld Research Network, Trivandrum, pp. 123-137.
Hardeland R. & B. Fuhrberg (1994) On the pleiotropy of indoleamine actions in a dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra: comparison of 5-methoxytryptamine with 5- and 6-fluorotryptamines. - Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 107C: 331-336.
Hardeland R. & B. Fuhrberg (1996) Intracellular pH of Gonyaulax polyedra during encystment in response to very low temperature. - In: Metabolism and Cellular Dynamics of Indoles (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 114-118.
Hardeland R. & B. Fuhrberg (1996) The circadian rhythm of aryl acylamidase activity explains the nocturnal maximum of 5-methoxytryptamine in Gonyaulax polyedra. - In: Metabolism and Cellular Dynamics of Indoles (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 52-56.
Hardeland R. & B. Fuhrberg (1996) The mechanism of 5-methoxytryptamine accumu-lation in Gonyaulax exposed to low temperature: Induction of aryl acylamidase by mela-tonin. - In: Metabolism and Cellular Dynamics of Indoles (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 57-61.
Hardeland R. & B. Fuhrberg (1996) Time course of aryl acylamidase activity in Gonyaulax polyedra under cyst-inducing conditions. - In: Metabolism and Cellular Dynamics of Indoles (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 70-73.
Hardeland R. & B. Fuhrberg (1996) Ubiquitous melatonin – Presence and effects in unicells, plants and animals. - Trends Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 2: 25-45.
Hardeland R. & E.M. Mbachu (1997) The circadian bioluminescence rhythm of Gonyaulax spinifera in constant darkness. - In: Biological Rhythms and Antioxidative Protection (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 110-112.
Hardeland R. & T.J. Meyer (1996) The circadian rhythm of bioluminescence capacity in Gonyaulax polyedra: Relative insensitivity to bafilomycin A1 and effects of 5-methoxy-tryptamine. - In: Metabolism and Cellular Dynamics of Indoles (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 128-130.
Hardeland R. & P. Nord (1984) Visualization of free-running circadian rhythms in the dinoflagellate Pyrocystis noctiluca. - Mar. Behav. Physiol. 11: 199-207.
Hardeland R. & B. Poeggeler (1995) Effect of oxidized glutathione on photooxidation of melatonin in a Gonyaulax extract/DMSO system. - In: Cellular Rhythms and Indoleamines (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 132-134.
Hardeland R. & B. Poeggeler (2003) Non-vertebrate melatonin. - J. Pineal Res. 34: 233-241.
Hardeland R. & B. Poeggeler (2008) Melatonin beyond its classical functions. - Open Physiol. J. 1: 1-23.
Hardeland R. & B.K. Zsizsik (1997) Formation of two free radical scavengers, indole-3-pyruvic acid and kynurenic acid, in Gonyaulax polyedra. - In: Biological Rhythms and Antioxidative Protection (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 23-27.
Hardeland R. & B.K. Zsizsik (2001) Oxidative stress in Lingulodinium polyedrum by treatment with 3-hydroxykynurenine. Moderate and lethal oxidative stress distinguished by measurements of bioluminescence. - In: Actions and Redox Properties of Melatonin and Other Aromatic Amino Acid Metabolites (R. Hardeland, ed.), Cuvillier, Göttingen, pp. 210-218.
Hardeland R., I. Balzer & B. Pöggeler (1992) Melatonin-Rhythmik und Photoperiodis-mus bei dem Dinoflagellaten Gonyaulax polyedra. - Verh. Dtsch. Zool. Ges. 85, Teil 1 p. 113.
Hardeland R., G. Behrmann & I. Balzer (1993) Knocking-out the circadian oscillator desensitizes Gonyaulax to melatonin and 5-methoxytryptamine: Is circadian rhythmicity required for photoperiodic cyst induction? - J. Interdiscipl. Cycle Res. 24: 219-224.
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