last update: 16 July 2018


Wägele H. & G. Johnson (2001) Observations on the histology and photosynthetic performance of „solar-powered“ opisthobranchs (Mollosca,Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) containing symbiotic chloroplasts or zooxanthellae. - Organisms Diversity & Evolution 1(3): 193-210.

Wailes G.H. (1934) Freshwater dinoflagellates of North America. -  Museum and Art Notes, Vancouver City Museum 7 Suppl. 11: 1-10, pls. 1-3.

Wakahama T., A. Laza-Martínez, A.I. Bin Haji Mohd Taha, H. Okuyama, K. Yoshida, K. Kogame, K. Awai, M. Kawachi, T. maoka & S. Takaichi (2012) Structural confirmation of a unique carotenoid lactoside, P457, in Symbiodinium sp. strain NBR 104787 isolated from a sea anemone and its distribution in dinoflagellates and various marine organisms. - Journal of Phycology 48(6): 1392-1402.


Wakeman K., M. Hoppenrath, A. Yamaguchi, G.S. Gavelis, B.S. Leander & H. Nozaki (2018) Ultrastructure of the marine benthic dinoflagellate Plagiodinium belizeanum (Dinophyceae) from the southeast Pacific island of Okinawa, Japan. - Phycologia 57(2): 209-222.

Wakeman K.C., A. Yamaguchi & T. Horiguchi (2018) Molecular phylogeny and morphology of Haplozoon ezoense n. sp. (Dinophyceae): a parasitic dinoflagellate with ultrastructural evidence of remnant non-photosynthetic plastids. - Protist 169(3): 333-350.

Walker L.M. & K.A. Steidinger (1979) Sexual reproduction in the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata. – Journal of Phycology 15: 312-315.

Wall D. (1971) Biological problems concerning fossilizable dinoflagellates. - Geoscience and Man 3: 1-15 + pls. 1-2.
Wall D. & B. Dale (1968) Modern dinoflagellate cysts and evolution of the Peridiniales.-  Micropaleontology 14(3): 265-304, pls. 1-4.
Wall D. & B. Dale (1968) Quarteranry calcareous dinoflagellates (Calciodinellideae) and their natural affinities. – Journal of Paleontology 42(6): 1395-1408, pls. 172. 
Wall D. & B. Dale (1969) The “Hystrichoisphaerid” resting spore of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense, Plate 1906. – Journal of Phycology 5: 140-149.
Wall D. & B. Dale (1971) A reconsideration of living and fossil Pyrophacus Stein, 1883 (Dinophyceae) - Journal of Phycology 7: 221-235.
Wall D. & W.R. Evitt (1970) A comparision of the modern genus Ceratium Schrank, 1793, with certain Cretaceous marine dinoflagellates. - Micropaleontology 21(1): 14-44, pls. 1-3.
Wall D., B. Dale, G.P, Lohmann & W.K. Smith (1977) The environmental and climatic distribution of dinoflagellate cysts in modern marine sediments from regions in the North and South Atlantic Oceans and adjacent seas. - Marine Micropaleontology 2: 121-200.
Wall D., R.R.L. Guillard & B. Dale (1967) Marine dinoflagellate cultures from resting spores. – Phycologia 6: 83-86.
Wall D., R.R.L. Guillard, B. Dale, E. Swift & N. Watabe (1970) Calcitic resting cysts in Peridinium trochoideum (Stein) Lemmermann, an autotrophic marine dinoflagellate. – Phycologia 9(2): 151-156.

Walsh R.G.J., W.G. Vyverman & P.A. Tyler (1996) Reconnaisance limnology of Tasmania. III. Coastal lagoons of Bruny Island. - Arch. Hydrobiol. 136: 247-260.

Wang D.-Z., H. Zhang, Y. Zhang & S.-F. Zhang (2014) Marine dinoflagellate proteomics: current status and future perspectives. - Journal of Proteomics 105: 121-132.
Wang L., Y. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. Lin & S. Lin (2014) DNA barcoding species in Alexandrium tamarense complex using ITS and proposing designation of five species. - Harmful Algae 31: 100-113.
Wang L., X. Lin, J.I. Goes & S. Lin (2016) Phylogenetic analyses of three genes of Pedinomonas noctilucae, the green endosymbiont of the marine dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans, reveal its affiliation to the order Marsupiomonadales (Chlorophyta, Pedinophyceae) under the reinstated name Protoeuglena noctilucae. - Protist 167(2): 205-216. 
Wang L.H., H.K. Chen, C.S. Jhu, J.O. Cheng, L.S. Fang & C.S. Chen (2015) Different strategies of energy storage in cultured and freshly isolated Symbiodinium sp. - Journal of Phycology 51(6): 1127-1136.

Wang N., Z. Luo, K.N. Mertens, F.M.G. McCarthy, L. Gu & H. Gu (2017) Cyst-motile stage relationship and molecular phylogeny of a new freshwater dinoflagellate Gymnodinium plasticum from Plastic Lake, canada. - Phycological Research 65: 312-321.

Wang Z.D. & Chen X. (1996) A study on population dynamics of Noctiluca scintillans and its red tides occurred at Dapeng Bay, China. - In: Yasumoto T., Oshima Y. & Fukujo Y. (Eds) Harmful and toxic algal blooms. Interg. Ocean. Comm. UNESCO pp. 377-380.

Wängberg S.-A. (1995) Effects of arsenate and copper on the algal communities in polluted lakes in the northern parts of Sweden assayed by PICT (Pollution-inducedcommunity tolerances). - Hydrobiologia 306: 109-124.

Wasmund N., H.-U. Lass & G. Nausch (2005) Distribution of nutrients, chlorophyll and phytoplankton primary production in relation to hydrographic structures bordering the Benguela-Angolan frontal region. – African Journal of Marine Science 27(1): 177-190.

Watanabe K., Y. Miyoshi, F. Kubo, R. Onuma, S. Murray & T. Horiguchi (2014) Ankistrodinium armigerum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a new species of heterotrophic marine sand-dwelling dinoflagellate from Japan and Australia. - Phycological Research 62: 125-135.
Watanabe M.M., S. Suda, I. Inouye & T. Sasa (1991) Taxonomy and phylogeny of a green dinoflagellate, Lepidodinium viride (Dinophyta). - Jap. J. Phycol. 39: 410.
Watanabe M.M., S. Suda, I. Inouye, T. Sawaguchi & M. Chihara (1990) Lepidodinium viride gen. et sp. nov. (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyta), a green dinoflagellate with a chlorophyll a- and b- containing endosymbiont. – Journal of Phycology 26(4): 741-751.
Watanabe M.M., Y. Takeda, T. Sasa, I. Inouye, S. Suda, T. Sawaguchi & M. Chihara (1987) A green dinoflagellate with chlorophylls a and b: morphology, fine structure of the chloroplast and chlorophyll composition. – Journal of Phycology 23: 382-389.  
Watanabe M.M., M. Watanabe & Y. Fukuyo (1982) Encystment and excystment of red tide Flagellates I. Induction of encystment in Scrippsiella trochoidea. Res. Rep. Natl. Inst. Environ. Stud. 30: 27-42.

Wawrik F. (1949) Neue Algen aus den Grundwasserweihern bei Kienberg-Gaming, N.Ö.. -  Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 96: 1-4.
Wawrik F. (1980) Algologische Untersuchungen der Eisschluss- und Eisbruchvegetationen in Teichen des südlichen Waldviertels (Niederösterreich; 1975). - Limnologica (Berlin) 12(1): 127-135.
Wawrik F. (1983) Planktonaspekte in Teichen des nördlichen und nordöstlichen Waldviertels während und nach dem Eisbrechen 1982. - Arch. Protistrenk. 127: 271-282.

Wedemayer G.J. & L.W. Wilcox (1984) The ultrastructure of the freshwater, colourless dinoflagellate Peridiniopsis berolinense (Lemm.) Bourrelly (Mastigophora, Dinoflagellida). - J. Protozool. 31: 444-453.
Wedemayer G.J., L.W. Wilcox & L.E. Graham (1982) Amphidinium cryophilum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) a new freshwater dinoflagellate. I. species description using light and scanning electron microscopy. - J. Phycol. 18: 13-17.

Weis V.M., E.A. Verde & W.S. Reynolds (2002) Characterization of a short form peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP) cDNA and protein from the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium muscatinei (Dinophyceae) from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Cnidaria). - Journal of Phycology 38(1): 157-163.

Weisse T.
& B. Kirchhoff (1997) Feeding of the heterotrophic freshwater dinoflagellate Peridiniopsis berolinense on cryptophytes: analysis by flow cytometry and electron particle counting. - Aquatic Microbial Ecology 12: 153-164.
Weisse T. & U.Scheffel-Möser (1990) Growth and grazing loss rates in single-celled Phaeocystis sp. (Prymnesiophyceae). – Marine Biology 106: 153-158.

Westfall J.A., P.C. Bradbury & J.W. Townsend (1983) Ultrastucture of the dinoflagellate Polykrikos I. Developement of the nematocyst-taeniocyst complex and morphology of the site of extrusion. – Journal  Cell Science 63: 245-261.

Wetherbee R. (1975) The fine structure of Ceratium tripos, a marine armoured dinoflagellate. I-III. - J. Ultrastr. Res. 50: 58-88.

Wham D.C., G. Ning & T.C. LaJeunesse (2017) Symbiodinium glynnii sp. nov., a species of stress-tolerant symbiotic dinoflagellates from pocilloporid and montiporid corals in the Pacific Ocean. - Phycologia 56(4): 396-409.

White D.A., L. Polimene & C.A. Llewellyn (2011) Effects of ultraviolet-A radiation and nutrient availability on the cellular composition of photoprotective compounds in Glenodinium foliaceum (Dinophyceae). - J. Phycol. 47(5): 1078-1088.

Whitford L.A. (1979) Additions to the frehwater algae in North Carolina. IX. - The Journal of the  Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 95(1): 42-47.

Whittington J., B. Sherman, D. Green & R.L. Oliver (2000) Growth of Ceratium hirundinella in a subtropical Australian reservoir: the role of vertical migration. - Journal of Plankton Research 22(6): 1025-1045.

Wickfors G.H. & R.M. Smolowitz (1995) Experimental and histological studies of four life-history stages of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, exposed to a cultured strain of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. - Biol. Bull. 188: 313-328.

Wilcox L.W. (1986) Prokaryotic endosymbionts in the chloroplast stroma of the dinoflagellate Woloszynskia pascheri. -  Protoplasma 135: 71-79.
Wilcox L.W. (1989) Multilayered structures (MLSs) in two dinoflagellates, Katodinium campylos and Woloszynskia pascheri. – Journal of Phycology 25(4): 785-789.
Wilcox L.W. & C.J. Wedemayer (1985) Dinoflagellate with blue-green chloroplasts derived from an endosymbiotic eucaryote. - Science 227: 192-194.
Wilcox L.W., G.J. Wedemayer & L.E. Graham (1982) Amphidinium cryophilum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) a new freshwater dinoflagellate. II. Ultrastructure. - J. Phycol. 18: 18-30.

Wilhelm G. & E. Mialhe (1996) Dinoflagellate infection associated with the decline of Necora puber crab populations in France. - Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 26: 213-219.


Wilke T., C. Zinssmeister & M. Hoppenrath (2018) Morphological variability within the marine dinoflagellate Ornithocercus quadratus (Dinophysales, Dinophyceae) - evidence for three separate morphospecies. - Phycologia 57(5): 555-571.

Willems H. (1985) Tetramerosphaera lacrimula, eine intern gefächerte Calcisphaere aus der Ober-Kreide. – Senckemberiana lethaea 66(3/5): 177-201.   
Willems H. (1988) Kalkige Dinoflagellaten-Zysten aus der oberkretazischen Schreibkreide-Facies N-Deutschlands (Coniac bis Maastricht). – Senckenberiana laethaea 68(5/6): 433-477.
Willems H. (1990) Teratropis, eine neue Kalkdinoflagellaten-Gattung (Pithonelloideae) aus der Ober-Kreide von Lägerdorf (N-Deutschland). – Senckenberiana lethaea 70(1/3): 239-257.  
Willems H. (1994) New calcareous dinoflagellates from the upper Cretaceous white chalk of northern Germany. - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 84(1/2): 57-72.

Williams E.G. & J.W.G. Lund (1972) The structure and development of a form of  Dinococcus oedogonii (Geitler) Fott. - Nova Hedwigia 23: 493-513.
Williams G.L., J.K. Lentin & R.A. Fensome (1998) The Lentin and Williams index of fossil dinoflagellates, 1998 edition. – American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists, Contributions Series 34: 1-817.

Wilson G.J. (1973) Palynology of the middle Pleistocene Te Piki Bed, Cape Runaway, New Zealand. - New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 16: 345-354.

Wislouch S. (1924) Przyczynek do biologji solnisk i genezy szlamów leczniczych na Krymnie. (Beiträge zur Biologie und Entstehung von Heilschlamm der Salinen der Krim). - Acta Societatis Botanicorum Polonicum 2: 99-129 + pl. 3.

Wisessang S., T. Ogata, M. Kodama, Y. Fukuyo, T. Ishimaru, K. Saitanu, T. Yongvanich & T. Piyakarnchana (1991) Accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins by green mussel Perna viridis by feeding on cultured cells of Alexandrium cohorticula isolated from the Gulf of Thailand. – Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 57: 127-131.
Wisessang S., V. Phanichyakarn, T. Piyakarnchana, Y. Fukuyo, T. Ishimaru, M. Kodama & T. Ogata (1993) Scanning electron microscope study of Alexandrium cohorticula, a toxic dinoflagellate from the Gulf of Thailand. - In: Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the Sea. (T.J. Smayda & Y. Shimizu, Eds), Elsevier Sci. Publ.,  pp. 191-195.

Withers N. (1987) Dinoflagellate sterols. - Botanical Monographs 21: 316-359.

Wittaya T., T. Yoshimatsu, H. Yamaguchi & M. Adachi (2016) Temperature and salinity effects and toxicity of Gambierdiscus caribaeus (Dinophyceae) from thailand. - Phycologia 55(3): 274-278.

Wolf R. & R. Hardeland (1994) Effects of pH on bioluminescence, circadian phase of glow maximum, and encystment in Gonyaulax polyedra. - In: Cell Biological Problems in Chronobiology (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 104-109.
Wolf R., R. Hardeland & I. Balzer (1994) Excystment in Gonyaulax polyedra. - In: Cell Biological Problems in Chronobiology (R. Hardeland, ed.), Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen, pp. 150-152.

Wołoszyńska J.
(1913) Das Phytoplankton einiger javanischer Seen mit Berücksichtigung des Sawa-Planktons. - Bulletin international de l’Académie des Sciences de Cracovie. Classe des Sciences mathématiques et Naturelles Série B: Sciences Naturelles, Année 1912: 649-709, pls. 33-36.
Wołoszyńska J. (1916) Polskie Peridineae słodkowodne. – Polnische Süßwasser-Peridineen. - Bulletin international de l’Académie des Sciences de Cracovie. Classe des Sciences mathématiques et Naturelles Série B : Sciences Naturelles, Année 1915: 260-284 + pls. 10-14.
Wołoszyńska J. (1917) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Algenflora Litauens. - Bull. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, Sér. B.: 123-130, pl. 14.
Wołoszyńska J. (1918) Neue Peridineen-Arten, nebst Bemerkungen über den Bau der Hülle bei Gymno- und Glenodinium. - Bulletin international de l’Académie des Sciences de Cracovie. Classe des Sciences mathématiques et Naturelles Série B: Sciences Naturelles Année 1917: 114-122.
Wołoszyńska J. (1919a) Die Algen der Tatraseen und -Tümpel. I. - Bulletin international de l’Académie des Sciences de Cracovie. Classe des Sciences mathématiques et Naturelles Série B: Sciences Naturelles Année 1918: 196-200 + pl. 14.
Wołoszyńska J. (1919b) Glony stawow i mlak tatra´nskich. - Bull. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, Sér. B, 58: 315-322, pl. 13.
Wołoszyńska J. (1925) Przyczynki do znajomści polskich brózdnic słodkowoddnych. (Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Süsswasser-Dinoflagellaten Polens). - Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 3(1): 49-64.
Wołoszyńska J. (1929) Dinoflagellatae Polskiego Baltyku i blot nad Piasnica. - Archivum Hydrobiologji i Rybactwa 3: 153-278.
Wołoszyńska J. (1930) Brózdnice torfowiska "Kopytowiec" pod Potuzyka kolo Sokola. (Peridineen des Hochmoores "Kopytowiec" in Poturzyca bei Sokal.)  - Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 7(4): 499-505, pls. 27-28, textfig. 76. 
Wołoszyńska J. (1935) Glony stawów i mlak tatrza´nskich. II. O dwóch Gymnodinjach z jezior Morskie Oko i Czarny Staw pod Rysami. - Die Algen der Tatraseen und Tümpel. II. Über zwei Gymnodinien aus den Seen „Morskie Oko“ und „Czarny Staw pod Rysami“  - Bulletin international de l’Académie des Sciences de Cracovie. Classe des Sciences mathématiques et Naturelles Série B: Sciences Naturelles Année 1935: 1-9 + pl. 1., textfigs. 1-5. 
Wołoszyńska J. (1936) Die Algen der Tatraseen und Tümpel. III. Peridineen im Winterplankton einiger Tatraseen. - Archivum Hydrobiologji i Rybactwa 10: 188-196 + pl. 9.
Wołoszyńska J. (1952) Peridineae montium Tatrensium  et Carpathorum Orientalium. - Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 21: 311-316 + pls. 1-17.

Wolny J., A. Lewitus, J. Kempton & B. Willis (2001) Ecology and morphology of the South Carolina red tide dinoflagellate Kryptoperidinium. - Journal of Phycology 37(3) Suppl.: 53.

Wood E.J.F. (1954) Dinoflagellates in the Australian region. – Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 5(2): 171-351.
Wood E.J.F. (1963a) Dinoflagellates in the Australian region. II - Recent collections. - Commonwelth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Division of  Fisheries and  Oceanography Techical papers 14: 1-55.
Wood E.J.F. (1963b) Dinoflagellates in the Australian region. III - Further collections. - Commonwelth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Division of  Fisheries and  Oceanography Techical papers 17: 1-20.
Wood E.J.F. (1968) Dinoflagellates of the Caribbean Sea and adjacent areas. – University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida, pp. 143.

Woods M.A., T.R.A. Vandenbroucke, M. Williams, J.B. Riding, S. De Schepper & K. Sabbe (2014) Complex response of dinoflagellate cyst distribution patterns to cooler early Oligocene oceans. - Earth-Science Reviews 138: 215-230.

Wulff A. (1916) Ueber das Kleinplankton der  Barentssee. - Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, Helgoland 13(28): 97-125, incl. pls. 1-4.

Wyatt T. (1975) The limitations of physical models for red tides. - In: LoCicero V.R. (Ed.) Prooceedings of the First International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms. Massachusetts Science Technology Foundation, Wakefield, pp. 81-93.
Wyatt T. & I.R. Jenkinson (1997) Notes on Alexandrium population dynamics. – Journal of Plankton Research 19: 551-575.